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Drug smuggler nation – Narcotics and the Netherlands, 1920-1995 - Manchester Scholarship Online
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Drug smuggler nation: Narcotics and the Netherlands, 1920-1995

Stephen Snelders


Why did the international drug regulatory regime of the twentieth century fail to stop an explosive increase in trade and consumption of illegal drugs? This study investigates the histories of smugglers and criminal entrepreneurs in the Netherlands who succeeded in turning the country into the so-called ‘Colombia of Europe’ or the ‘international drug supermarket’. Increasing state regulations and intervention led to the proliferation of ‘criminal anarchy’, a ‘hydra’ of small, anarchic groups and networks ideally suited to circumvent the enforcement of regulation. Networks of smugglers and supp ... More

Keywords: drugs, narcotics, smuggling, trafficking routes, illegal drug production, organized crime, triads, underworld, counterculture, drug policy

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2021 Print ISBN-13: 9781526151391
Published to Manchester Scholarship Online: September 2021 DOI:10.7765/9781526151407


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Stephen Snelders, author
Utrecht University