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UltrasThe Passion and Performance of Contemporary Football Fandom$
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Mark Doidge, Radoslaw Kossakowski, and Svenja Mintert

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9781526127624

Published to Manchester Scholarship Online: September 2020

DOI: 10.7765/9781526127631

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PRINTED FROM MANCHESTER SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.manchester.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Manchester University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in MSO for personal use.date: 28 September 2021

The ultras: a conclusion

The ultras: a conclusion

(p.181) The ultras: a conclusion

Mark Doidge

Radosław Kossakowski

Svenja Mintert

Manchester University Press

The ultras reflect a paradox in contemporary football. On the one hand, increasingly commercial clubs enjoy the passion, colour and spectacle that the ultras provide through their performances and this helps market their clubs. On the other, clubs and authorities seek to regulate certain aspects of ultras’ behaviour, including violence, anti-social chanting, use of pyrotechnics and anything that challenges their power. This conflict unifies and emotionally sustains the ultras and provides a critical focus for their activities. These emotions fuel the politics of the social movement of Against Modern Football. In effect, it creates what Albert Camus called a ‘fatal embrace’ where both sides are incapable of uniting and are willing to fight until the end.

Keywords:   ultras, performance, emotions, social movements, violence, conflict, politics, pyrotechnics

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