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Communism and anti-Communism in early Cold War ItalyLanguage, symbols and myths$

Andrea Mariuzzo

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9781526121875

Published to Manchester Scholarship Online: January 2019

DOI: 10.7228/manchester/9781526121875.001.0001

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(p.248) Index

(p.248) Index

Source:
Communism and anti-Communism in early Cold War Italy
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
Acerbo, Giacomo 86–7
Alessandrini, Ada 77, 175
Alessandrini, Federico 32, 184–5
Alvaro, Corrado 209
Andreotti, Giulio 68, 89
Angiolillo, Renato 24, 122, 162
Anthony the Abbot 144
Arata, Rodolfo 42, 90, 121
Aron, Raymond 23
Asino, L’ 57
Associazione Pionieri d’Italia (API) 60–2
Attardi, Ugo 159
Avanti! 24, 50, 54–5, 57, 76–7, 82, 83–4, 87, 119, 135, 138–9, 145, 153, 169, 199, 202, 204, 207, 226
Avvenire d’Italia, L’ 62
Baldacci, Gaetano 211
Barca, Luciano 13
Barmine, Alexander 98, 209, 211
Bartali, Gino 144, 161
Barzini, Luigi 99
Barzini, Luigi Junior 219
Basso, Lelio 53, 76, 85
Battisti, Cesare 163–5
Bedeschi, Lorenzo 62
Bergman, Ingrid 225
Beria, Lavrentiy 108
Berlinguer, Enrico 14, 89
Berlinguer, Mario 84
Berlusconi, Silvio 9
Bernardino of Siena 146
Berstein, Serge 4
Bigiaretti, Libero 204
Bobbio, Norberto 179
Bosco, Giovanni 146
Bottazzi, Giuseppe ‘Peppone’ (fictional character) 132–3
Bracci, Mario 114, 169
Bricchetto, Enrica 219
Bruno, Giordano 141
Cabrini, Francesca S. 146
Calamandrei, Piero 118
Calendario del Popolo, Il 63, 119, 137, 141, 225
Candido 26, 47, 93, 95, 102, 108, 110–11, 123, 142–5, 162, 209
Cantimori, Delio 91–2
Capa, Robert 100
capitalism (in socialist and communist ideology) 4–5, 197–200, 208, 211–12, 217
Cappi, Giuseppe 107
Carli-Ballola, Renato 119
castellated personification of Italy 160–1
Catherine of Siena 146
Catholic Action 17, 19, 32, 34–6, 44, 46, 53, 60–1, 181
see also Civic Committees; Quotidiano, Il (p.249)
Catholic Church 4, 16–17, 59, 80, 89, 137, 141, 146–7, 184–7, 213, 216
and Communism 2, 5, 7–8, 30–6, 56–9
Cattaneo, Carlo 135
Caudana, Mino 98
Cavalieri, Luigi 174
Cavour, Camillo 138, 140–1, 144
Cesarini, Marco 203
Chaplin, Charlie 227
Charlemagne 141
Chiaromonte, Nicola 23, 91
Cimabue 89
cinema (and political communication) 20, 23, 132–3
Cingolani, Mario 65
Cippico, Edoardo 53–5, 65
Civic Committees 18–19, 34, 36, 38, 55, 101–7, 112, 146, 148, 152, 159, 161, 164, 179–80, 210, 213, 216
see also Gedda, Luigi
Clare of Assisi 146
Columbus, Christopher 144
Cominform 4, 75, 149, 168
Comintern 79, 143
Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro (CGIL) 159, 202, 214
Congress for Cultural Freedom 23, 91, 213
Constituent Assembly 12, 78, 93, 113, 161
Constitution of 1948 85, 113–22
Coppi, Fausto 144, 161
Corriere della Sera 24, 39, 45, 97–9, 162, 181–2, 187, 216, 219
Cossutta, Armando 169
Cottolengo, Giuseppe 146
Crisafulli, Vezio 116
Critica Sociale 48, 197, 210
Crociata del grande ritorno 36, 40
Crociata per un mondo migliore 37–8, 40
Crucillà, Luigi 99
Cucchi, Aldo 105
Dallin, David 212
D’Andrea, Ugo 95
David, Max 97
De Gasperi, Alcide 15, 67, 78, 80–2, 84–9, 105, 120, 135, 145, 151, 156–9, 161–6, 178, 180–3, 197, 201
De Gasperi, Augusto 164
De Sanctis, Gino 211, 216
democracy 4, 74, 90, 93–4, 114, 117–21
and communist ideology 75–8, 197
Democratic Popular Front 5, 18, 24, 34–6, 50, 54–6, 76–7, 81–2, 104, 106, 113, 133, 136–8, 143, 146, 149, 161, 168, 200, 203–4, 210
Deutscher, Isaac 100, 109
Di Giorgio, Giuseppe 220
Di Vittorio, Giuseppe 202
Dichter, Ernest 11
Dimitrov, Georgi 79, 81, 114
Diocletian (emperor) 44
Don Basilio, 26, 50, 53, 54, 64, 80–1, 141, 153, 163
Don Camillo (fictional character) 132–3
D’Onofrio, Edoardo 140, 148
Dossetti, Giuseppe 15
Dozza, Giuseppe 93
Einaudi, Luigi 162, 213
Einaudi, Giulio 162
Eisenhower, Dwight D. 158–9, 177
elections of 1948 5, 15, 22, 24, 33, 35, 39, 41, 45, 50, 56, 58, 62, 64, 90, 95, 98, 106, 114, 133, 135, 141–9, 154, 174, 197–8, 214
elections of 1953 14, 46, 94, 112, 210, 216
see also Legge truffa
Emanuel, Guglielmo 24, 187
Engels, Friedrich 136, 143
Enoch, Kenneth 173
Epoca, 25, 111–12, 148, 200, 224
European Defense Community (EDC) 155–6, 159
Excommunication of communists in 1949 14, 40, 46, 56
Facchi, Paolo 74
Fanfani, Amintore 15
Farge, Yves 173–4
Fascism 74, 78, 91–3, 139–40, 146, 157–9, 165–6
and communist ideology 3–4, 79–89, 171, 197
Fenoaltea, Giorgio 139
Ferrara, Mario 24
First World War 21, 132, 163–5, 169
Ford, Henry 224
Francis of Assisi 51, 146
Franz Joseph of Austria (emperor) 163
French Revolution 45, 48, 160
Fucci, Franco 96–7
Galilei, Galileo 141
Gallone, Carmine 132
Garibaldi, Clelia 142–3
Garibaldi, Giuseppe 6, 110, 133–8, 141–6
Gedda, Luigi 18–19, 36–7, 44, 161
Gentile, Panfilo 24
Gide, André 7, 209
Gioberti, Vincenzo 137
Giordani, Igino 34, 44, 57, 90, 143, 150–1, 165, 182–3
Giotto 89
Giovannini, Alberto 122
Giustizia e Libertà 139
Gobetti, Piero 138
Gonzaga, Luigi 146
Gordey, Michel 99–100, 110
Gorresio, Vittorio 133
Gottwald, Klement 96
Gramsci, Antonio 138–40
Graziani, Rodolfo 89
Gregory XVI (pope) 141
Grieco, Ruggero 152–3
Gronchi, Giovanni 86, 103
Guareschi, Giovanni 26, 47, 66, 94, 97, 100, 103, 106–8, 110, 122–3, 133, 144–7, 151–2, 160, 162, 180, 197, 209
see also Candido
Guerriero, Augusto 24, 25, 181, 187, 216
Guglielmone, Teresio 65–7
Guizzardi, Gustavo 45
Gullace, Gino 221
Guttuso, Renato 158–9
Herod I the Great (king) 42
Hitler, Adolf 80, 88, 157–8, 170, 174
Hobsbawm, Eric J. 196
Holy Year of 1950 19, 20, 42
Ingrao, Pietro 137, 163
Innocent XI (pope) 39
Iotti, Nilde 68
Italian Popular Party (PPI) 17, 86, 165
Italian Republican Party (PRI) 142–3
Italian Social Movement (MSI) 74, 94
Italian Socialist Party (PSI) 3, 15–16, 24, 26, 47–9, 53, 65, 68, 76, 78, 82, 113–16, 119, 121, 135, 138–9, 143–4, 152, 156, 166, 197, 200, 225
Jacovitti, Benito 26, 103, 179
Jesus Christ 38, 40, 43, 44
in socialist and communist imagery 48–51, 53, 144 (p.251)
Kazan, Elia 227
Kim Il-Sung 172
Kinsey Reports 222
Koestler, Arthur 23, 100
Kolarz, Walter 98
Korean war 8, 62, 139, 151–2, 156, 158, 171–7, 186
Kravchenko, Victor 7, 98, 101, 109, 209, 211–12
Kriegel, Annie 79
Labriola, Arturo 24
land reform of 1950 5, 13, 47, 114, 201–2
Lasswell, Harold D. 21
Lavoratore, Il 207
Ledit, Joseph H. s.j. 31, 33–4, 47, 59, 104
Ledóchowski, Wlodimir s.j. 31
legge truffa 3, 40, 67–8, 77, 86, 108, 117, 122–3
Lener, Salvatore s.j. 42
Lenin, Vladimir 105, 144, 168
Lepanto, Battle of 39
Lettres de Rome sur l’Athéisme Moderne 31, 59
Lettres Françaises, Les 98, 213
Levi, Carlo 1
Lilli, Virgilio 211
Lincoln, Abraham 143
Lombardi, Riccardo s.j. 32–4, 37, 46–7, 60, 146
Longo, Luigi 25, 81
Longo, Rosetta 175
Longone, Riccardo 199
Lopez, Roberto 221
Lupinacci, Manlio 180
Luzzatti, Ivo 187
MacArthur, Douglas 158, 173
McCarthy, Joseph 228
Maccari, Raffaele 26
Madonna Pellegrina 33, 200
Mafai, Mario 159
Magnani, Valdo 105
Malaparte, Curzio 96–7, 155
Malenkov, Georgy 68, 108, 112, 157, 162
Marianne 160
Marshall Plan 20, 22, 154–5, 216, 226
Marx, Karl 59, 136, 143–4, 205, 211
Marxism-Leninism 132, 167–8, 172
Catholic criticism to it 31–4
and Italian Communism 4, 139, 143, 196–7
Marzotto, Gaetano 199–200
Mastrocinque, Camillo 155
Matteotti, Carlo 212–13
Matteotti, Giacomo 144
Mazzini, Giuseppe 135, 138, 141, 143
Merzagora, Cesare 65
Messaggero, Il 24, 45–7, 96, 98–9, 106, 143, 151–2, 162, 182, 210–11, 216, 220
Messe, Giovanni 148, 187
Mieli, Renato 156
Mindszenty, Józef 42, 44, 46, 106, 186
Missiroli, Mario 24, 152
Molotov, Vyacheslav 108
Mondo, Il 25, 39, 91
Mondrone, Domenico s.j. 33, 39
Monnerot, Jules 39
Montanelli, Indro 220–1
Mortati, Costantino 118
Mosca, Oreste 106, 145
Mostra dell’Aldilà 20, 97, 101, 210
Mostra della Ricostruzione 20, 215–16
Muckermann, Friedrich s.j. 34
Mussolini, Benito 24, 47, 80, 82, 84, 88–9, 93, 165
Negarville, Celeste 144
Negro, Silvio 181
Nenni, Pietro, 68, 116, 157, 162
Noi Donne 16, 175
North Atlantic Treaty 98, 155–8, 181–3, 187
opposition to it 6, 14, 16, 168
Office of War Information (OWI) 21
Oriani, Alfredo 138
Orwell, George 23
Osservatore Romano, L’ 24, 41, 46, 54–5, 154
OWI see Office of War Information (p.252)
Pacciardi, Randolfo 187
Paese, Il 24, 54–7, 84, 88, 114–15, 117, 139, 155, 164, 172, 174, 178
Pajetta, Gian Carlo 13, 66, 77–8, 103, 164, 209
Partisans for Peace 16, 161, 166–79, 185–6, 204
Pastore, Ottavio 84
Pattuglia 224–5
Pavone, Claudio 134
peace movements 4, 68, 132, 175
Pella, Giuseppe 82
Pellicani, Michele 227
Pellizzi, Camillo 92
Pendergast, Tom 225
Pepe, Gabriele 87
Pertici, Roberto 90, 188
Pertini, Sandro 113, 156–7, 172
Petkov, Nikola 95, 104, 107
Picasso, Pablo 176, 179–80
Piccioni, Attilio 1
Piovene, Guido 24, 98, 219–22
Pintor, Luigi 14
Pisacane, Carlo 138
Pius V (pope) 146
Pius IX (pope) 144
Pius XI (pope) 17, 31
Pius XII (pope) 14, 31–2, 37–43, 53, 90, 137, 185–6
Platone, Felice 138, 153
Pocock, J.G.A. 2
Podrecca, Guido 57
Pollastrelli, Giovanni 65
Post-war reconstruction 198, 214–17
Prampolini, Camillo 48
propaganda 12–13
and political communication 2, 11
Propaganda (PCI periodical publication) 13, 50–2, 56, 64–5, 78, 82, 88, 117, 154–5, 158, 169–70, 177, 198–201, 204, 223
Purificato, Domenico 159
Quaderno del Propagandista 13
Quaderno dell’Attivista 13–14, 113, 169
Quinn, John 173
Quotidiano, Il 32, 35, 37, 41, 44, 46, 56–7, 61, 111–12, 150, 179–81, 184–6
Rajk, László 100
Reader’s Digest 22–3
Rèpaci, Leonida 24
resistance 78, 83, 134, 139–40, 171–3
and Italian democracy 1, 92–3
Rinascita, 83, 155, 169
Ripka, Hubert 98
Risorgimento 2, 57, 143, 146, 163–6
in socialist and communist ideology 134–41, 156
Risorgimento Liberale, Il 91
Robotti, Paolo 110–11, 170, 206
Romani, Bruno 98
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 227
Röpke, Wilhelm 39, 91
Rousset, David 213
Rosenberg, Julius and Ethel 112
Rossellini, Roberto 225
Rossi, Edoardo 82
Rossi, Maria Maddalena 175
Rossi, Vittorio Guido 99–100, 110, 208–9, 211
Ruggiero, Amerigo 220
Rusconi, Edilio 25, 46, 112, 158, 181
Saini, Ezio 148
Sala, Giuseppe 149, 153
Salvemini, Gaetano 138
Sansa, Giorgio 211
Sassoon, Donald 208
Scarpelli, Furio 26
Scattolini, Virgilio 55
Scelba, Mario 80, 82, 84, 86–9, 120, 159
Scoccimarro, Mario 76, 83, 196
Secchia, Pietro 115, 118–19, 136, 158
Second World War 21–2, 91, 134, 156, 173, 176–7, 185
see also Resistance
Seme, Il 48
Sereni, Emilio 1, 166 (p.253)
Serge, Victor 209
Servizi Propaganda e Stampa (SPES) 15, 20, 68, 102, 104, 107–8, 112, 143–8, 158–9, 161, 165, 179, 181–3, 210–14, 217
see also Traguardo
Sforza, Carlo 182
Silone, Ignazio 23
Sixtus IV (pope) 57
Sixtus V (pope) 57
Slanski, Rudolf 100, 108
Smith, Tomaso 24
Solari, Piero 211
Solaro della Margarita, Clemente 141
Soldani, Simonetta 136–7
Souvarine, Boris 109, 213
Soviet Revolution 15, 30, 40–1, 59–60, 96, 122, 169
Spanish Civil War 16, 134, 151
Spaventa, Silvio 138
sport (and political communication) 106, 206–7
Spriano, Paolo 138
Stalin, Joseph 3, 47, 68, 100, 103, 107–12, 140, 144–5, 157, 162, 179–80
Stato Operaio, Lo 134
Stepinac, Aloysius 41
Stevens, Edmund 99–100
Studium 44
Sturzo, Luigi 37, 89
Sulner, Laszlo 46
Syngman Rhee 172
Taccuino del Propagandista 14–15, 67, 86–7, 117–19, 169, 175
Taddei, Ezio 224–5
Tagliacozzo, Enzo 91
Taparelli d’Azeglio, Luigi 141
Taviani, Paolo Emilio 120, 181
Tempo, Il 24, 46, 95, 98, 122, 149, 153, 162, 180, 187
Terracini, Umberto 25
Thorèz, Maurice 47
Tito (Josif Broz) 147
Togni, Giuseppe 65, 82
totalitarianism 85–6, 90–4, 119, 143
Traguardo 15, 62, 97, 101, 103, 107, 111, 143, 145, 148, 157–8, 183, 187, 211–15
Trevisani, Giulio 75–6, 119, 153
tricolour (Italian national flag) 122, 159–60
Truman, Harry S. 90, 137, 145, 157–9, 169, 178, 224–7
Tumiati, Gaetano 199
Tupini, Giorgio 15, 20, 104
Turati, Filippo 144
Tutino, Saverio 204
Unione Donne Italiane (UDI) 16, 175–6
see also Noi Donne
United States Information Service (USIS) 21–2, 210, 217
Uomo Qualunque, Fronte dell’ 93
USSR see Soviet Union
Vanni, Ettore 157
Vatican State 19, 35, 186
in communist propaganda 51–6, 165, 202 (p.254)
Ventrone, Angelo 2
Veronese, Vittorino 19
Victor Emmanuel II (king) 140
Vie Nuove 25, 63, 76, 88, 138, 198, 202, 204, 206–7, 217, 224–8
Villabruna, Bruno 141
Vinciguerra, Mario 24
Viola, Ettore 64–5
Wallace, Henry 227
Wanger, Walter 217
Webb, Sidney and Beatrice 204
Windecke, Christian 108–9
Wyszyński, Stefan 44
Zac, Pino (Giuseppe Zaccaria) 26
Zatopek, Emil 206
Zhdanov, Andrei 4, 75, 77, 168, 170