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The Advocacy TrapTransnational Activism and State Power in China$
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Stephen Noakes

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9781526119476

Published to Manchester Scholarship Online: May 2018

DOI: 10.7228/manchester/9781526119476.001.0001

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State-directed advocacy: the ‘drift’ phenomenon in the ‘free Tibet’ and global warming campaigns

State-directed advocacy: the ‘drift’ phenomenon in the ‘free Tibet’ and global warming campaigns

(p.104) 4 State-directed advocacy: the ‘drift’ phenomenon in the ‘free Tibet’ and global warming campaigns
The Advocacy Trap

Stephen Noakes

Manchester University Press

The cases explored here, namely the campaign to establish a sovereign Tibetan homeland and to reduce China’s greenhouse gas emissions, represented a third type of causal process—‘advocacy drift.’ In the former case, Beijing’s refusal to countenance the prospect of a ‘free Tibet’ and drive to protect its own territorial integrity created conditions under which the TAN splintered into a variety of factions. Some of these espoused the use of ‘any means necessary’ to effect the goal of an independent Tibetan state, while others, including the Dalai Lama himself, retreated from the original mission of the TAN and have instead sought greater cultural protection for Tibetans within a more multinational China. In the case of the global arming campaign, advocates of emissions trading abandoned that means of reducing China’s carbon outputs, and chose instead to work with an assortment of state agencies and NGOs to combat global warming on China’s terms. While the mechanisms at play in the intra-campaign changes described in this chapter differ, both call attention to the way in which states shape advocacy campaigns just as campaigns may influence state behaviour.

Keywords:   Tibet, Independence, Sovereignty, Representation, China, Global Warming, Emissions, Environmentalism, NGOs, Trade

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