The book concludes with re-evaluation of late eighteenth and nineteenth-century attitudes to provincial urbanisation and asserts that the reorganisation of the traditional urban hierarchy was mirrored by the evolution of a new visual vocabulary with which the urban scene was articulated. In the 1780s towns and cities were represented primarily through an aesthetic formula inherited from picturesque landscape painting. By the 1830s and 1840s, it was possible to present towns from myriad perspectives. However, by the 1880s this plurality was under attack from a new aesthetic archetype that privileged the scale and impact of industrial premises, pollution, and overcrowding.
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