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Human Remains and IdentificationMass violence, genocide, and the 'forensic turn'$

Élisabeth Anstett and Jean-Marc Dreyfus

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780719097560

Published to Manchester Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.7228/manchester/9780719097560.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM MANCHESTER SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.manchester.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Manchester University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in MSO for personal use.date: 23 July 2021

(p.239) Index

(p.239) Index

Source:
Human Remains and Identification
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
Aboriginal peoples 18
actor-network theory 143
Adams, B. J. 129
AEGIS Foundation 212
aerial photography 149‒50, 157‒60
Afghanistan 122, 230
African National Congress (ANC) 182‒4, 190, 194
Albright, Madeleine 149
Amgar Garage 211
Amons, Andrii 60‒1, 66, 73
antisemitism 35, 38‒9, 53
archaeological excavation techniques 92
Argentina 2, 4‒5, 7, 23, 131, 178‒9
Armenian genocide 7, 25
Aronson, Jay 192‒4
artefacts taken from graves 19‒20
Artemov, B.A. 103
articulation of adjoining bones 129
Asian tsunami (2004) 146
asymmetry within the skeleton 129
Azarov, Mykola 73
Baartman, Sarah 185‒7, 195
Baraybar, J. P. 120
Batlle, Jorge 90‒1
Bell, Lynne 212
Bender, Tom 16
Berkeley campus (University of California) 21
Berkhoff, Karel C. 10
Big Lagoon (California) 14‒15
Biko, Steve 182
Bitiutckii, Viacheslav 3, 10
Blackburn, K. 232
de Blainville, Henri 185
Bobrov 99, 103
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) 2, 4, 11, 130, 142‒3, 146‒8, 151‒4, 162‒4, 203
Boyarin, Jonathan 52
Braf, Mordechai-Menachem 44‒7
Branjevo 158‒9
Breitinger, Emil 186
British Museum 19
Brown, Anthony 153
Buki, Moshe 40‒1
Bukit Dunbar 223‒5
burial practices 47, 49, 51, 98‒9, 163; see also funerary practices
burial societies 181‒2
Burnett, Peter 17
burning of human remains 130
Bykivnia 59‒74
California, University of 21
Cambodia 2, 7
Čančari Road 159‒60
Carynnyk, Marco 65
(p.240) Catholic Church 205
Caughey, John 16
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 86, 149
Chile 131
Clinton, Bill 149
‘closed context cases’ 120‒3
closure in the mourning process 118, 142, 206
commingling of human remains 122, 125‒31, 147, 151
concealment of bodies 89‒94
Connor, M.A. 14
contamination of DNA samples 125‒6
Cook, Sherburne 16
‘Corpses of mass violence and genocide’ research programme 1‒2, 14
Cox, Margaret 212, 214
Cranfield University 212‒14
Croatia 121
Crossland, Zoe 131, 186‒7
Cutiliero, José 148
Cuvier, Georges 185
Dalindyebo, Sabata 181, 187
Davis campus (University of California) 21
‘decent burial’ 205‒6, 208
Dembovska, A. S. (Mrs) 63
Dembovsky, Symon 63
Dennie, Garrey 181, 187
Dillane, S. 127‒8
‘dirty war’ 93
‘disappearing’ the bodies of political opponents 83, 86‒93, 120
‘disciplines of the dead’ 176
DNA 4, 6, 10‒11, 90, 94, 117‒27, 153‒61, 179, 186, 194, 214‒15
limitations of 119‒20, 123‒4, 130
mitochondrial and nuclear 125, 186
use of profiles 123‒6
DNA in Africa (NGO) 214
Drach, Ivan 67
Dukhovskoi, I. A. 104
du Preez, Max 180
Dushutin, N. V. 103
elemental analysis 126‒8
‘embedding’ 213‒14
emic approach to identification of human remains 120
ethical issues in research 7‒8, 131
ethnographic investigations 131
eugenics 20
exhumation 5‒11
in America 19‒22
in Bosnia and Herzegovina 146, 149, 152
in Malaysia 222‒6, 231‒2
of Polish Holocaust victims 35‒48, 51, 53
potential problems with 131‒2, 194
in Russia 99‒110
in Rwanda 203‒5, 208‒11, 215
in South Africa 175‒80, 183‒91
in Ukraine 62‒3, 70
extreme violence 1‒7, 85
Ezhov, Nikolai 100
families of victims, needs and desires of 193‒4
Favell Museun 21
Fedorchuk, Vitalii 65
Ferrándiz, Francisco 119, 131
Finder, Gabriel N. 10
Fondebrider, Luis 5
forensic anthropologists, role of 203‒4, 212‒15
forensic sciences and the ‘forensic turn’ in research 1‒2, 4‒6
Fournet, C. 152
Fowler, Gillian 10‒11
fractionation 126
fragmented human remains 129
Frenkel, Chaim 40‒1, 47, 51‒3
Friedman, Shimon 44‒6
Fuchs, Chaim Leyb 53
Fullard, Madeleine 193
funerary practices 6, 119, 122, 181; see also burial practices
Garwolin 37‒8
gender roles 53
Geneva Conventions 118, 148
‘genocidal death’ (Fournet) 152
genocide 7, 16, 25, 117‒19, 146, 152
definition of 118‒19
in Rwanda 204‒9, 212, 215
geography of murder, physical and mental 8
Gifford, Edward 20
Glidden, Ralph 21
Glogova 155‒6
Gorbachev, Mikhail 69
Grupo de Investigación en Antropología Forense (GIAF) 83, 89‒90
(p.241) Guatemala 8, 118‒20, 123‒5, 131
guerrillas 189‒90
Habyarimana, Juvénal 214
Hack, K. 232
Haglund, W. 145, 210‒12
handover ceremonies 189‒90
Hani, Chris 182
Hayhurst, Douglas 224
Hearst, Phoebe 20
Herblum, Leybish 43
Hewett, George 19
Heye, George Gustav 20
Hintsa, King 185
Hitler, Adolf 23
Hladush, Ivan 68‒71
Hodzić, Refik 142‒3
Holocaust 4, 7, 10, 16, 24, 34‒6, 52‒3
Holovchenko, Ivan 65
Horska, Alla 64
Hrdlicka, Ales 20
Hryshchenko, O. 65
Hubriienko, V. 68
human rights violations 90, 92, 145‒6, 178
Human Terrain System 213
Huntington, Collis 20
Hurtado, Albert 18
Ibarra, Mario 208
identification of human remains 3‒6, 10, 90, 94, 117‒32, 152, 206‒7, 215
challenges for 121‒3
osteometric approaches to 128‒30
reasons for concern with 118‒19, 132
technical solutions to 123‒31
traditional approaches to 119‒20
INFORCE Foundation 212‒14
International Commission for Missing Persons (ICMP) 125, 153‒4, 159, 161, 194
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 179, 204, 208‒12
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 2, 143, 145, 148‒59, 179, 211
International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) 203
Israel, State of 51
Jefferson, Thomas 18
Jesse, E. 145, 214‒15
John Paul II, Pope 72
Juarez, C. A. 126‒7
Jugo, Admir 11
Juhl, K. 145
Kahane, David 41, 46‒7
Kanimba, Misago 207‒8
Katyn 72‒3
Kavazović, Husejn 162‒3
Kayishema, Clément 210
Kazakevich, Vitalii 72
KGB (Committee for State Security) 64, 66‒9, 101
Khomych, Andrii 72
Khrushchev, Nikita 64
Kibuye 210‒11
Kigali 211‒12
Kirianov, A. V. 103
Kiselev, Sergei 69‒70
Klonowski, E.-E. 130
Kola, Andrzej 72
Komar, D. 121, 130
Komorowski, Bronislaw 73
Kondratsky, Andrii 74
Kondufor, Iurii 68
Konigsberg, L. W. 129
Korman, Rémi 11
Kosakivsky, Leonid 71
Kosyakin, A. V. 101
Kotenko, V. M. 101
Kozluk 160
Kravchuk, Leonid 73
Kravica warehouse 154‒6
Kroeber, Alfred 19, 23‒4
Krutsyk, Roman 73
Kuchma, Leonid 73
Kugelmaas, Jack 52
Kukovenko, Petro 63‒5
Kulakov, V.G. 104
Kulyk, Viktor 71
Kunert, Andrzej 73
Kutno 45‒51
Laksman, Shmuel 36‒40, 47, 51‒2
Lalu, Premesh 185
Latour, B. 143, 146, 163
Lazete 156‒7
Lee, E. J. 125
Legassick, Martin 185‒6
Leplevskii, Izraïl 60
Liew Yew Kiew 229
Likhachev, V. D. 102
Lim, Donald 230
Lim Kit Siang 231
Liplje 158
(p.242) Lódź 37
Lohvanov, Mykola and Halyna 67
looting of graves 9, 19, 24, 64‒7, 74
Lorenzo Tiembla Tierra 85
Lukavac Re-association Center (LKRC) 161
Lysenko, Mykola 67‒8, 72‒3
machinery used in burials 122, 151
McMurtry, Larry 16
Mailänder, Elissa 16, 23
Makarenko, Dmytro 62
Makarenko, Vasyl 63
Malakov, Dmytro 74
Malaysia 11, 221‒32
Mandela, Nelson 178, 183
Mant, A. 144
Maori people 18
Marchuk, Ievhen 72
mass graves:
definition of 144‒7
different origins of 122, 146‒7; see also primary mass graves; secondary mass graves
Masyk, Kostiantyn 67, 69
Mayakovsky, V. V. 108
Mazz, José López 10
Mbeki, Thabo 195
memorials 227‒31
memory politics 148, 163‒4
military combatants’ bodies 2‒3
Mincberg, Simcha 35, 42‒4, 47
Mirski, Michal 41
Mission Dolores museum 25
mitochondrial DNA 125, 186
Mitsugi, Iwata 226
Molefe, Popo 184
Morrison, Toni 26
Morton, Samuel 20
Musiienko, Oleksa 67
Mykhailovsky, V. I. 68‒9
Mykytivna, Frosyna 64
Namibia 18
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) (1990) 21‒2
Native Americans 9, 14‒27
natural disasters 146
Nazi regime 38; see also Holocaust
Ndiaye, Bacre Waly 145
Ndwandwe, Phila 183‒4
New York African Burial Ground 26
Nikiforov, A. K. 101
Nikitina, Vira 63
NKVD (People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs) 59‒63, 65, 68, 72, 74, 100‒5
Nova Kasaba 149
Ntamara 209‒10
Ohlone people 17
‘open context cases’ 117, 120‒1
Operation Carrot 89‒91
Operation Condor 87, 90
Oshry, Ephraim 49‒50
Osiel, Mark 153
osteometric approaches to identification 128‒30
Otwock 44, 46
pair-matching of skeletal remains 128‒9
Paraybar, José 210
Parit Tinggi 225‒9
pauper burials 181, 184
Petkovci Dam 157‒8, 160
Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) 210‒12
Pienaar, Klaas and Trooi 186, 195
Plachynda, Serhii 67
Platt, Tony 9
Pöch, Rudolph 186
Podgornoe 99
Podrinje Identification Project 161
Pogue-Harrison, Robert 52
Poland 5, 10, 34‒53, 72‒3
political funerals 191‒2, 195
Porokhnevich, I. M. 103
Portugal 25
post-mortem examinations 187
Pratt, Richard 18
primary mass graves 151, 153‒4
Przewożnik, Andrzej 72
Quek Jin Teck 229
racial science 185‒6, 189, 195
racism, scientific 19‒20, 23
Ramirez, Louise J. Miranda 17
Rassool, Ciraj 185‒6, 189, 195
Ratushnyi, K.A. 103
Ravnice 155
Reagan, Ronald 14
Red Power movement 18
Reichs, Kathleen 212
religious practices 162‒3
remote sensing equipment 6
reparation payments 119
repatriation of human remains 21‒2
(p.243) Rhode, David 149
Riaboshtan, Feodosii 66
‘robbing’ of mass graves 151‒2, 155, 158
Rome Statute 118‒19
Rousseau, Nicky 11
Russia 3‒4, 10, 98‒112; see also Soviet Union
Rutaganda, Georges 210‒12
Ruwanpura, P. R. 144
Ruzindana, Obed 210
Rwanda 2‒4, 7, 11, 23, 124, 179, 203‒15
Commission Mémorial 208
National Commission for the Fight Against Genocide 213
National Museum 208
Office of the Prosecutor 209‒11
Special Investigation Unit 209‒10
Schmitt, S. 145
search for bodies 3, 94, 106‒7
Second World War 2‒3, 110
secondary mass graves 122, 143‒4, 147, 151‒6, 162, 164, 206
Sefolo, Lizzie 193
Serbia 123, 142, 147‒50
Shabanov, I. M. 103
Shakespeare, William 14
Shalatsky, Stanislav 72
Sharia law 162
Shcherbytsky, Volodymyr 68
Shelest, Petro 65
Sigodin, M. M. 105
Skierniewice 40‒2
Skinner, M. 144‒5, 147
Šlaus, M. 121
Śnieżko, Stefan 72
Snow, Clyde 4‒5
social anthropology 124
Somovo 101‒2
Sophocles 52
South Africa 11, 175‒96
Missing Persons Task Team (MPTT) 176, 188‒93, 196
National Heritage Resources Act 190
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) 175‒80, 184‒91, 194, 196
Soviet Union 59; see also Russia
Spain and the Spanish Civil War 2, 4‒5, 8, 119‒20, 131, 203
Spanish colonialism in America 16‒17, 85
spectroscopy 127‒8
Srebrenica 4, 142‒3, 146‒51, 154, 156, 160‒2
stable isotope analysis/profiling 126
Stalin, Joseph (and Stalinism) 59‒61, 69, 71, 74, 98, 100‒1, 111
Stanić, Tunjo 161
state terrorism 86‒7
Statement 710399 (film) 142‒3
Steadman, D. W. 124‒5
survivors’ organizations 206‒7
Sych, V. A. 104
symbolism 225, 229
Symonenko, Vasyl 64
Tabachnyk, Dmytro 73
Tambo, Oliver 182
Tan Chai Ho 229
Taniuk, Les 64, 69
Tay, Frances 11
Tekutev, I. A. 101
Thomas, R. M. 128
Thompson, Tim 10‒11
tongbao 225, 227
torture, use of 86‒7, 90
transitional justice 175‒6, 185, 192
truth and reconciliation tools 119; see also under South Africa
Tsapin, A. N. 103
Turkey 25
Ukraine 59‒60, 71‒4; see also Bykivnia
United Nations 90
Assistance Mission for Rwanda 211
Security Council 148‒9, 209
United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) 153, 157‒60
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 86, 149
foreign policy 86
Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) 154, 159; see also Native Americans
Uruguay 10, 83‒94
Uspenskii, Aleksandr 60
Vancouver, George 19
van Pelt, Robert Jan 4
Verdery, Katherine 50, 175‒6, 222, 231
Voronezh 99‒106, 109‒12
Wagner, S. 162
war crimes trials 223
Wastell, Sari 11
Weichselfish, Efraim 45, 47‒8, 51
Wierzbnik 41‒3
Wilczur, Jacek 72
(p.244) witness statements 142‒3
Wollenberg, Jörg 25
Xiao Wen Hu 225‒7
X-ray fluorescence 27
Yanukovych, Viktor 73
yizkor books 35‒41, 44‒5, 52‒3
Young, James E. 36
Yugoslavia 2, 25, 179
Yurok people 15, 17, 19, 22
Yushchenko, Viktor 71, 73
Zainuddin Madin 230‒1
Zalazje 156
Żelechów 36‒9, 52
Zeleni Jadar 155‒6
Zhan Gujing 231
Zhursky, V. A. 69
Zuma, Jacob 190, 195