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Paramilitary loyalismIdentity and change$
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Richard Reed

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780719095306

Published to Manchester Scholarship Online: January 2016

DOI: 10.7228/manchester/9780719095306.001.0001

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Loyalism in comparative context

(p.180) 7 Abroad
Paramilitary loyalism

Richard Reed

Manchester University Press

This final chapter draws on many of the themes developed in the previous sections in the context of a number of other international groups known for extremist behaviour and views. This work advances some of the author’s recent research on historical pro-state groups in South Africa, Serb paramilitaries in the former Yugoslavia and far-right groups of the militia and patriot movements in the United States and Neo-Nazi groups in Germany and the UK. The main intention of this chapter is to ‘normalise’ loyalism, to demonstrate that the defining themes of the loyalist story are not unique to loyalism, but have been echoed in many other contexts, and thus to strengthen the argument that we need to understand the story of loyalism as a human story and not something exceptional. The comparisons are also intended to reinforce some of the key social, cultural and historical factors which influence extremist or violent behaviour in all of these contexts.

Keywords:   Afrikaners, South Africa, Serb paramilitaries, Former Yugoslavia, Militia movement, United States, Neo-Nazi, Germany, English Defence League

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