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Paramilitary loyalismIdentity and change$
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Richard Reed

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780719095306

Published to Manchester Scholarship Online: January 2016

DOI: 10.7228/manchester/9780719095306.001.0001

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Accords and violence: 1988–2007

(p.93) 4 Fracture
Paramilitary loyalism

Richard Reed

Manchester University Press

This chapter evaluates the renewal of loyalist politics through the newly (re)formed Ulster Democratic Party (UDP) and PUP and argues that the events leading to the ceasefires in October 1994 evidenced an independent loyalism, prepared to consult widely and re-engage with traditional allies on its own terms, acting with a sense of freedom and confidence. The second section tempers this argument by considering the changing nature of loyalist violence during this period. It uses the Drumcree dispute to illustrate the powerful grip of the conservative impulses that birthed the paramilitaries. The final section considers how these two divergent manifestations of loyalism fostered a chaotic, nihilistic brand of loyalism personified by Johnny Adair, a product itself of a parallel series of engagements with right-wing extremists and global popular culture.

Keywords:   Peace-talks, Ceasefires, Drumcree, Holy Cross, Feuding, Johnny Adair, Loyalist culture

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