Many people associate the term ‘internationalism’ with socialism and the notion that class solidarity overrides national boundaries. Belgium was a key site for this type of internationalism, as represented by socialists such as Emile Vandervelde, Camille Huysmans and Louis de Brouckère. Between 1900 and 1914, the International Socialist Bureau coordinated the work of the Second International from its base in Brussels. The chapter also looks beyond socialist politics and considers anarchism, feminism and non-socialist campaigns for social reform. In doing so, it explores the links between different internationalisms, for instance the relationship between socialism, feminism and freethought. Furthermore, the chapter shows how the Great War caused ruptures within many international movements. After the war, socialists operated within a different environment, which is highlighted by their tensions with communist internationalism.
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