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The Activation of Citizenship in Europe$
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Thomas Pfister

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780719083310

Published to Manchester Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.7228/manchester/9780719083310.001.0001

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From citizenship to citizenship in practice

From citizenship to citizenship in practice

(p.16) 2 From citizenship to citizenship in practice
The Activation of Citizenship in Europe

Thomas Pfister

Manchester University Press

The chapter develops the central theoretical category from which the transformations of the concepts, institutions, and practices of welfare (modernisation) are assessed and evaluated. For this purpose, citizenship is viewed as an open-ended historical process driven by continuous contestation. Contestations can come from within a polity but also from external actors and institutions, they can differ in style from friendly deliberation to open conflict. Moreover, each historical citizenship formation can be understood as a composite of different citizenship practices, which establish and reproduce institutionalised relationships between citizens and a polity. More specifically, these practices can be about rights and duties, about participation, and about access to societal resources. At the same time, each historical citizenship regime produces certain patterns of exclusion and inequality. Given that many forms of inequality and exclusion in the context of employment and welfare are based on gender and given the clear gender dimension of the activation paradigm, analysing this field provides critical insights about the activation agenda at large.

Keywords:   Citizenship, inequality, Participation, Rights, Duties, Access, Practice, Historical process

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