While a great deal has been written on the Mafia in Sicily, there is less literature on the anti-Mafia movement. The first part of this chapter gives a general background to Leoluca Orlando's political programme during the 1990s, the so-called ‘Palermitan renaissance’, when he was mayor of Palermo. Thereafter the chapter focuses on national, regional and local initiatives to fight against the Mafia in public schools, with a particular emphasis on school policy during the 1990s. What were the most important aspects of Orlando's cultural warfare against the Mafia? What were its objectives? Which were the strategies chosen? To what extent may the programme be described as a success or a failure? The chapter starts with a brief outline of the anti-Mafia movement. It continues with a description of civic education in Italy and the school policy in Palermo that sought to break the Mafia's territorial and mental control. It also discusses strong forces against Orlando's urban planning and examines the return of small-scale clientelism as well as increased interest in civic education in Palermo under Orlando.
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