In the USSR, concerns about security in relation to the economy were institutionalised. With the partial exception of the final years under Mikhail Gorbachev, it was accepted as normal that security considerations exerted a strong influence on economic policy and on the public presentation of the economy, in terms of statistics, to both Soviet citizens and the outside world. With the end of communist rule and the planned economy in Russia at the end of 1991, the institutionalised regime of economic security, already weakened by the Gorbachev reforms, effectively collapsed. This chapter contextualises the securitisation debate in relation to the economy, focusing on the question: Is the economic policy of contemporary Russia being securitised? It also examines the renewed interest in economic security under Vladimir Putin; looks at the scandal involving Aleksei Pichugin, head of the department of internal economic security of the Yukos oil company; discusses the ‘securitisation’ of Russia's military economy; and comments on the rise and fall of ‘economic security’ in the country.
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