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The Political Writings of Eva Gore-Booth$

Sonja Tiernan

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780719088742

Published to Manchester Scholarship Online: January 2016

DOI: 10.7228/manchester/9780719088742.001.0001

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(p.236) Index

(p.236) Index

Source:
The Political Writings of Eva Gore-Booth
Publisher:
Manchester University Press

Page numbers in italic refer to illustrations

Abbey Theatre 2
Academy, The (journal) 4
‘Women’s suffrage and the French Revolution’ 62–5
agricultural labourers 83
Albrecht, Dr 29, 30
Allen, Clifford 161, 161n19
America 86–7, 143, 202, 202n24
Annesley, Lady Clare 225, 225n45
anti-conscription movement 134, 189, 190
Gore-Booth and 189, 221–2
anti-German propaganda 134
anti-recruitment activities 199n18
Anti-Suffrage Manifesto 82, 85
Anti-Sweating League 102n60
anti-war activities 134, 138
apprenticeships
exclusion of women 22, 34–5, 37, 97
trade unions and 100–1
Arch, Joseph 83
aristocracy 119, 121, 122
Army Act 155
Arnold, Mrs H. 10n3
Arnold, Matthew 10n3
art, writings by Eva Gore-Booth on
‘Art and peace’ 174–8
Rhythms of art 162–8
articles by Gore-Booth
‘Art and peace’ 174–8
‘Fair pay for women’ 23–8
‘For God and Kathleen Ni Houlihan’ 216–21
‘The Messengers’ 169–70
‘The Messengers II’ 170
‘Running a suffrage candidate’ 103–4
‘A Sketch in Florence’ 171–2
‘The Sinn Féin rebellion’ 211–15
‘The victim’s friends’ 225–6
‘Women and the nation: The workers III–no trades for women’ 95–102
‘Women and the suffrage: a reply to Lady Lovat and Mrs. Humphry Ward’ 76–87
‘Women’s suffrage and the French Revolution’ 62–5
‘Women’s wages and the laws of supply and demand’ 115–24
Asquith, Herbert Henry 14
appeal to on behalf of Casement 201–2
compulsory register (WWI) 137
Home Rule Bill (1912) and 181
Irish rebellion and 185–7
Licensing Bill (1908) and 87n53
Redmond and 181
resignation 187
war and 143–4
women’s suffrage and 40–2
Aud, SS (German ship) 184, 203, 204
Aylesbury prison 187
Bailey, Daniel 207, 207n31
Bannister, Gertrude 201, 203
barmaids 12, 14, 36 (p.237)
abolition of 18, 69
ban implemented in Glasgow 16n12
employment of 65–7
employment restrictions and 16, 17–19, 52, 120
Gore-Booth’s views on 15–19
Labour party and 91
legislation 66
Licensing Bill and 69–72
mass demonstration poster 74
Mrs MacDonald’s views on 15
number of 66, 87
Barmaids’ Political Defence League 14, 68–9, 73, 75
campaign, success of 87, 87n53, 92
Barry, Kevin 190
Barton, Robert 223–4, 224n42–3
Bean na h-Éireann (Irishwoman) 191n12
Beauchamp, Joan 138
Bell, Clive 162, 164
Bell, Richard 10, 35, 35n27
Birrell, Augustine 26n18
Blackwell, Ernley 204, 204n27
Blake, William 227
Board of Trade 52, 59, 73n51
Boer War 144, 215, 215n36
bookbinders 25, 109–10, 122
exclusion of women 34–5, 37, 91, 100
Bookbinders’ Union 34–5, 37
Bowen-Colthurst, Captain J. C. 184, 229, 230, 230n50
brass-workers 91, 121
Britannia (journal) 133
British Army
conscription 133, 137, 189
Irish Volunteers and 181
Irishmen and 134, 182
recruitment campaign 133–4, 214
Brockway, Fenner 137
Buddhism 150–3
Bulley, Amy 11
Bulley, Arthur 104n62, 113, 113n69–70
Burke, Edmund 166
Burnley Weavers’ Union 55
Burns, John 34, 34n25, 89, 90, 100
Butler, Josephine 128, 128n77
Buxton, Sidney 38, 59
by-elections
Cockermouth 45
Huddersfield 45, 45n35
Manchester North-West (1908) 73
WSPU election policy 45, 45n35
capital punishment see death penalty
Casement, Roger 183, 184–5, 199, 216–21
death sentence, reaction to 217
Easter Rising (1916) and 211, 213, 215–16
execution of 207n32, 210n334, 220–1
‘For God and Kathleen Ni Houlihan’ 216–21
Gore-Booth’s letter to Sir Edward Grey 206–7
Gore-Booth’s letters on behalf of 201–3, 208–9
humanitarian work 202, 202n22 218
New Scotland Yard and 204–6
religious convictions of 219–20
trial of 207n32, 217
Casey, Patrick 224, 224n44
Catholic Bulletin 185
‘For God and Kathleen Ni Houlihan’ 216–21
Ceannt, Eamonn 182, 195
chain-makers 20, 20n16, 51, 91
children
childcare and 40
Factory Act (1847) and 53n41
Children’s Dangerous Performances Act (1879) 28n21
cholera epidemic 115, 115n72
Christianity 150, 153–4, 157, 160, 169–70
Churchill, Lord Randolph 56
Churchill, Winston 30, 73n51, 93–4
Citizens’ Defence Force 183–4
Citizens’ Peace Committee 229
Clarke, Kathleen 223, 223n40
Clarke, Thomas 182, 223n40
Coade, J. J. 230, 230n50
coal industry
pit-brow women and 35–6, 110, 111, 124
proposed ban on women workers 110n66
Collet, Clara (Board of Trade) 20, 20n17, 52, 59
(p.238) Committee for the Abolition of the Death Penalty 190, 225n46
Common Cause (journal) 14
‘Running a suffrage candidate’ 103–4
Commons, John R. 34n26
competition 38, 83–4, 90, 101
barmaids and 15, 16, 67
barriers and 118
displaced workers and 28, 30, 98–9
position of women workers 123–4
problems of 19, 121
sectional labour and 121–2
trade unions and 109
wages and 17, 24, 37, 52, 53
women and 32, 33, 37, 90, 120–1
Compulsion Bill 154
Condren, Mary 2
Connolly, James 182, 183, 193, 193n14, 195, 213
Sheehy-Skeffington and 228, 229
conscience, sanctity of 168–9
conscientious objectors 137, 138, 154–5, 156–60, 161n21
the faith of 160–1
tribunals and 138, 155–61 see also pacifism
conscription 137
Compulsion Bill 154
Ireland and 189, 221–2
Sheehy-Skeffington and 229
WSPU and 133
Conservatives 10, 46, 105
Contagious Diseases Acts 128, 128n76
Cooper, Selina 11, 55
Corday, Charlotte 63, 63n46, 64
cotton trade 20, 21, 22, 23
married women and 34
mule-spinners 22, 96, 97, 121, 122
pay inequality 24, 59
ring-spinning 121
shirt makers 23–4
Cove, Lily 29n22
Cox, Harold 105, 105n63, 107
Cradley Heath 20, 20n16, 36, 51, 91
Criminal Law Amendment Bill 128, 128n75
Cullen, Martin 1
Daily News
Dublin housing conditions 213
women’s suffrage 67–8
Damascus 175, 175n30
dangerous performances
circus performers 36, 81, 89, 120
legislation 28n21, 36
Dangerous Performances Act (1897) 28n21
Dangerous Performances Bill 28–9
Danton, Georges 64
Darling, Lord Chief Justice 88n55
Davitt, Michael 228–9
de Chavannes, Puvis 164
de Valera, Éamon 188, 189, 222
death penalty 154–5, 161, 172–3, 190, 225–6
Defence of the Realm Act 199n18
Democrat 229
Devlin, Joseph 189
Dicey, Albert Venn 107, 107n64–5
Dickenson, Sarah 55
Barmaids Political Defence League 69
Criminal Law Amendment Bill 129
employment of barmaids 17–19, 67, 69
florists’ work hours 88
Pankhurst, Christabel and 12
WTUC co-secretary 10, 11, 45, 46
Dillon, John 189, 222
domestic servants, insurance of 112–13
Dublin Evening Mail 207n30, 208
Easter Rising (1916) 4, 181, 182–3
Casement and 184–5
civilian deaths, British inquiry and 185–7
civilians, murder of 185, 230
executions and 183, 184, 202, 213
general amnesty and 187
Gore-Booth’s speech on 192–200
Edinburgh, women compositors 121
Employment of Barmaids (1906) 66
enfranchisement
class/gender issue 9
opposition to 48, 48n39, 49–50
political parties, effect on 106
protection of 39, 81
wages, effect on 107–8 (p.239)
Englishwoman (journal) 14, 14n10
‘Women and the nation: The workers III–no trades for women’ 95–102
Euripides 177
Factory Act (1847) 53, 53n41
Factory Acts 12, 18, 60, 81, 95, 96, 102
florists’ assistants and 88, 89, 96, 98–9
Factory Reform Movement 53n41
Factory and Workshop Act 88n55–6
Faithfull, Emily 135
Fawcett, Millicent Garret 54n42, 125, 125n73, 133
First World War 133, 181–2
deaths 137
economic consequences of 134
Home Rule and 181
recruitment campaign 133–4
South Africa and 215n36
white feather scheme 133
Fitzgerald, Admiral Charles 133
Flame, The (journal) 138
‘Messengers II, The’ 170
‘Messengers, The’ 169–70
‘A Sketch in Florence’ 171–2
florists 96, 98–9
florists’ assistants 88, 89, 102, 120
legislation and 95, 98
working hours 102n60
French Revolution 62–5
Frongoch Internment Camp 187
Fry, Margery 173n27
Gavan Duffy, George 208, 216
gender equality
government rates and 26–7, 38
labour and 10, 21, 82, 109
general elections 10, 14
Coalition majority 129
general election (1910) 181
Rossendale suffrage candidate 103–5, 113–14
suffrage candidates 42, 47, 61–2 see also by-elections
Gladstone, Herbert 36, 72, 80, 88, 89
Glasgow, barmaids’ employment and 16n12, 17, 66, 69, 70
Gooch, George 17n13, 72, 87n54
Gooch, Mrs 17
Gore-Booth, Constance see Markievicz, Constance, Countess
Gore-Booth, Eva 4–5, 14
biography 2
‘Francis Sheehy-Skeffington’ (essay) 226–30
Irish independence 181
militant activities, opposition to 42n33
move to London 134–5, 136
photographs of 3, 5, 231
Roper, Esther and 5
Sligo suffrage society established 9
writings of 4 see also articles; pamphlets; poetry; speeches
Gore-Booth, Sir Josslyn 1
government service
exclusion of women 108, 122
salaries (clerks) 118
Great War see First World War
Greek writers 176–8
Grey, Sir Edward 143–4
Gore-Booth’s letters to 203, 206
Griffith, Arthur 188, 189
Hallifax, Stuart 181
Harcourt, Lewis 113, 113n69–70, 114
Haslam, James 97, 97n59
Haworth, Elizabeth A. 126, 126n74
Hegel, Georg 166
Henderson, Arthur 88, 88n56, 89
Herford, Dr 208
Higgins, Michael D. 2
Holloway jail 223, 223n40
(p.240) Home Rule 181, 182, 187
Home Rule Bill (1912) 181, 182, 189
Homer 176–7
Howard League for Penal Reform 173
Illustrated London News 134
Indecent Advertisement Act 128
Independent Labour Party 11, 41, 104n62, 137
Independent Labour Party of Ireland 229
Ireland
anti-conscription activities 134, 189, 190
conscription and 189
Dublin Fusiliers recruitment parade 135
martial law in 190
Irish Citizen 183, 229
Irish Citizen Army 182, 182n2
Irish Convention 187, 189
Irish legends 164, 167
Irish National Aid and Volunteer Dependants’ Fund 223n40
Irish Parliamentary Party 45–6, 181, 189, 228
Irish Privy Council 221
Irish Republican Army (IRA) 190
Irish Transport Workers 229
Irish Volunteers 181, 182, 205n28
Irish Women’s Franchise League 183
Irish Women’s Suffrage and Local Government Association 9, 228
Jacoby, Henry 172, 172n26
Joan of Arc, St 70
Joynson-Hicks, William 75n51
Keats, John 163, 164
Kebty-Fletcher, J. 113n6970
Keir Hardie, James 10, 44n34, 47, 88n56, 193n14
Kelly, G. D. 10n3
Kitchener, Field Marshal Horatio Herbert 133
labour
buyers of 119
as a commodity 117, 119
demand for 31, 32
democracy and 119–20
displacement of women 33–4
industrial value of labourer 123
laws of supply and demand 32–9, 108, 109, 115–24
professional 120
restrictions for women 32–4, 52, 58
sellers of 119, 120
trade unions and 119, 120
Labour Leader 137
Labour Party
barmaids’ employment and 91
conference, Belfast (1907) 44, 44n34
conference, Hull (1908) 67, 67n49
death penalty, abolition of 225n46
LRC candidate and 56
women workers and 101
women’s suffrage and 44–5, 46, 57, 114
Women’s Suffrage Bill and 47
working men and 48
working women’s support for 57
Labour Representation Committee (LRC) 9–10, 23, 54, 56
Labour Representation Movement 107, 123
Ladies National Association for the Repeal of Contagious Diseases Act 128n77
Lancashire and Cheshire Women Textile and other Workers’ Representation Committee 12, 42–3, 45, 105
establishment of 11, 23
manifesto 54–5
pamphlet on behalf of 19–23
Lancashire and Cheshire Women Workers’ Representatives Committee 111
Lancashire and Cheshire Women’s Suffrage Society 45
Lancashire Trade Council 60
Lao Tze 151
League of Peace and Freedom 137, 138, 190
pamphlet Rhythms of art 162–8
Leonardo da Vinci 164, 165, 178
Liberal party 44, 46, 93
adult suffrage and 105
Redmond and 181
women’s franchise resolution 44
Licensing Bill (1908) 14, 68, 69
barmaids and 69–72, 73
Clause 20 75, 80, 87n53
(p.241) Liddington, Jill 11
Lissadell House, sale of 1–2
Lloyd George, David 112, 113n71, 187, 189
Lloyd’s Weekly News 194
Local Government Board 27n20, 34n25, 80
Local Government (Ireland) Act 9
London Women’s School of Medicine 125
Lovat, Lady Alice Mary 48n39, 80
Gore-Booth’s reply to 76–87
‘Women and Suffrage’ 76, 76n52
women, views on 77, 78, 79, 81
MacArthur, Mary 102, 102n60
MacDiarmada, Sean 182
MacDonagh, Thomas 182, 213, 219, 227
MacDonald, Margaret Gladstone 15, 15n11, 16, 17, 18, 19, 72
MacDonald, Ramsay 15n11
MacGowan, Elizabeth (later Haworth) 126n74
McKenna, Reginald 133
MacNeill, Eoin 182
Maeterlinck, Maurice 78, 164
Mallin, Agnes 196n16
Mallin, Michael 182, 196n16–17
Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser
Barmaids Defence League 73, 75
Labour Party conference 44–5
Manchester Guardian 14, 138
admission of women to Mr Churchill’s meeting 93–4
‘The anti-suffragist’ 114
Asquith and women’s suffrage 40–2
barmaids, employment of 17–19, 65–7
barmaids, Licensing Bill and 69–72
the coalition majority 129
conscientious objectors 160–1
Criminal Law Amendment Bill 128–9
Dangerous Performances Bill 28–30
the death penalty 154–5, 172–3
editor’s comments on letters 71, 72, 94
florists’ work hours 88
insurance of domestic servants 112–13
Irish peace and executions 224–5
An Irish prisoner 223–4
a medical loan fund 125–6
pit-brow workers 110, 111, 124
Roger Casement: plea for further appeal 208–9
Roger Casement, letter to C. P. Scott on behalf of 201–3
Roger Casement’s death sentence 217
‘The ruin preparing in Ireland’ 189, 221–2
‘The Sanctity of Conscience’ 168–9
Sheehy-Skeffington and 229
Sinn Féin prisoners 223
suffrage candidate in Rossendale 104–5
suffragist demonstration 42–3
war and subjection of women 115
women teachers and the vote 125
women workers and the vote 102
women’s suffrage 30–1, 45–7
Manchester Labour Bureau 19
Manchester and Salford Women’s Trade and Labour Council 11, 12, 42–3, 45, 46, 68
Criminal Law Amendment Bill 129
florists’ working hours 88, 102
general election plan 61
women’s right to work pamphlet 89–92
Manchester University Settlement 126n74
Manchester Women’s Trade Union 15–17
Marat, Jean-Paul 63n47, 64
Markievicz, Constance, Countess 1, 2, 182, 207, 212, 213
at Liberty Hall (1917) 187
birthday card from Eva 186
imprisonment of 187, 194–6, 223
release of 187
Masterman, Charles 111, 111n67
Maume, Patrick 228n49
Maxwell, General John 182
Mayhall, Laura 133n1
medical loan fund 125–6
medical profession 26, 78, 108
Men’s League for Women’s Suffrage 103n61
military service
exemptions from 137
Military Service Act 137, 161
(p.242) Military Service Bill 189
miners 35–6, 91
Miners’ Federation 35, 110n66, 111, 124
Mitchell, J. Malcolm 103n61, 104, 104n62
Montefiore, Dora B. 15n11
Monteith, Roger 205, 205n28, 207
Moser, Clara 213–14
Mountjoy prison 190, 194, 195
Napoleon 118–19
National Industrial and Professional Women’s Suffrage Society (NIPWSS) 12, 87, 114
Gore-Booth’s address to 135, 139–46
pamphlet 105–10
women at the pit-brow 124
National Insurance Bill 112, 112n68
National Labour Press 137, 138
pamphlets published by 138, 155–60
National Liberal Federation 44
National Union of Teachers 21, 25, 52
suffragist members of 125
women members of 58, 83
National Union of Women Workers 16
National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) 9, 14, 125n73, 133, 134
National Women’s Anti-Suffrage League 48n39
Nationalist 229
New Scotland Yard 204
Nightingale, Florence 115
Nineteenth Century and After (journal) 14
‘Women and suffrage: reply to Lady Lovat and Mrs Humphry Ward’ 76–87
‘Women and Suffrage’ (A. M. Lovat) 76, 76n52
‘Women’s wages and the laws of supply and demand’ 115–24
No Conscription Fellowship 137, 138, 161n19–20
Norris, Jill 11
North of England Society for Women’s Suffrage (NESWS) 12
North King Street massacre 199, 199n19
Ó Cuív, Éamon 1
O’Neill, Lawrence 189
overtime 96
pacifism 4, 134
‘Religious aspects of non-resistance’ 146–54
‘Whence come wars?’ 139–46 see also Sheehy-Skeffington, Francis
Pacifist Philosophy of Life Conference 135–7
pamphlets by Gore-Booth 4, 11
At the Military Tribunal 138
Is the case urgent? 105–10
Religious aspects of non-resistance 146–54
Rhythms of art 162–8
The Tribunal 155–60
Women workers and parliamentary representation 19–23
Women’s right to work 89
Pankhurst, Christabel 12, 45–6
Pankhurst, Emmeline 11, 133
parliamentary representation
advantages of 37
LRC and 54
men and 37, 39, 53, 60, 108
unenfranchised women and 54, 56, 57–8
women workers and 19–23
women’s lack of 35, 37, 39, 62, 85, 86, 89
Pater, Walter 163–4
Paterson, Emma 135
Patmore, Coventry 58
Paul, St 168
Pearse, Patrick 182, 195, 202, 202n23, 212
Perry, John 1
Pimlico Clothing Factory 27, 37–8, 53, 59
pit-brow workers 35–6, 110, 110n66, 111, 120, 124
Plato 78, 177
(p.243) Plunkett, Horace 189
Plunkett, Joseph 182
poetry by Gore-Booth 4, 162, 164, 166
‘After the Storm’ 231
‘An Irish Marching Song’ 191–2
Broken Glory 138–9
‘Christmas Eve in Prison’ 201
‘Easter Week’ 200
‘Francis Sheehy-Skeffington, Dublin, 26 April 1916’ 200
‘Joan of Arc’ 43–4
‘Roger Casement’ 210
‘The anti-suffragist’ 114
‘The Artist in War Time’ 173–4
‘The Land to a Landlord’ 191
‘The Repentance of Eve’ 43
‘The Street Orator’ 127
‘To Constance in Prison’ 201
‘To J. W. in Winchester prison’ 161
‘Utopia’ 154
‘Women’s Rights’ 126–7
political parties
Gore-Booth’s views on 47
women and 106
political power
aristocracy and 119
women and 144, 145
women’s need for 80 see also parliamentary representation
Poor Law Guardians 9
post office workers 26–7, 38
male clerks’ salaries 53
Royal Commission inquiry 52, 59
women clerks’ salaries 52–3
Potteries, the 20, 51
poverty/the poor
living conditions 20
protection from 124
unskilled workers, exploitation of 121
wages and 19, 20–1, 51, 61
women as bread-winners 101
work and 90, 99, 100, 101–2
Powell, Sir Francis 42n33
printing trade
compositors 120
newspaper employment 108
women compositors 35, 121
women printers and typesetters 135 see also bookbinders
prisoners 223–4
professions
exclusion of women 108, 122
remuneration and 120 see also medical profession; teaching profession
prostitutes 128
Quelch, Henry 67
Reading gaol 187
Reddish, Sarah 11, 12, 45, 55
Redmond, John 181, 182, 214
Reform Acts 9
religion
Buddhism 150–3
Christianity 150, 153–4, 157, 160, 169–70
conscience and 168–9
conscientious objectors and 160–1
‘Religious aspects of non-resistance’ 146–54
Representation of the People Act (1918) 14, 129n78
Restoration of Order to Ireland Act (1920) 190
Review of Reviews 229
Rivers, John 63, 63n47, 64, 65n48
Roland, Marie-Jeanne Phlippon 62, 62n45, 63, 64–5, 149
Roper, Esther 4, 5, 9, 11, 45, 55
Barmaids’ Political Defence League 69, 75
Criminal Law Amendment Bill 129
death penalty, abolition of 190
domestic servants’ insurance 113
employment of barmaids 69, 71, 72, 88
florists’ work hours 88, 102n60
Gore-Booth’s speech published by 192n13
medical fund appeal 126
move to London 134–5
pit-brow women workers 111
Prison Letters of Countess Markievicz 192n13, 211n35
(p.244) Sinn Féin article published by 211n35
suffrage 40n31, 105, 114
women teachers and the vote 125
Royal Arsenal, Woolwich 27, 27n19
Royal Commission on the Wages of Postal Servants 52, 59
Royal Dublin Fusiliers 134, 135
Runciman, Walter 27, 27n20
Ruskin, John 76, 77, 78
Russell, Thomas 222n39
Ryan, Fr F. M. 196n16, 208, 211
Ryan, Frederick 229
St Enda’s School 202, 202n23
Samuel, Herbert 28n21
Scott, C. P. 10n3, 14, 201–3
Service (journal) 138
‘Art and peace’ 174–8
‘The victim’s friends’ 225–6
Shackleton, David 56, 90, 91, 91n57
Shackleton, Edith 133
Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of 53, 53n41
Sharp, Evelyn 47, 47n37
Shaw, George Bernard 129, 140, 140n15, 142
Sheehy-Skeffington, Francis 183–4, 195, 198–9, 199n18, 200, 203
conscription and 229
execution of 230
Gore-Booth’s essay about 226–30
UCD and 228, 228n49
women’s suffrage and 228, 229
Sheehy-Skeffington, Hanna 183, 184, 198, 226, 229
Shelley, Percy Bysshe 164, 227
Sherwell, Arthur 47, 47n38
Shorter, Dora Sigerson 225n47
Sinn Féin 183, 189, 206, 208
prisoners 223, 223n40, 224
‘The Sinn Féin rebellion’ 211–15
Smillie, Robert 45n35
Smith, Edith 138
Smith, Sir Frederick Edwin 155
Smith, Thorley 42n32, 46, 62
Snowden, Philip, Viscount 161, 161n20
Socialism/Socialists 101, 102, 123
Socialist Review, ‘The Sinn Féin rebellion’ 211–15
Society for the Abolition of Barmaids 69, 71
speeches by Gore-Booth
‘Holograph account of a visit to Dublin in the aftermath of the Easter Rising’ 192–200
‘The victim’s friends’ 225–6
‘Whence come wars?’ 139–46
Steinthal, Revd Samuel 10n3
Stephen, Caroline E. 49n40, 50, 51, 54
Stephens, James 227, 230
strikes
bookbinders and 35, 100
Lockout (1913), Dublin 214, 229
women chain-makers and 20n16
suffrage movement
adult suffrage 67, 105
in America 86
Asquith and 40–2
class and 9, 10
demonstration 42–3
election candidates and 47
First World War and 133
French Revolution and 62–5
Gore-Booth’s views on 49–51, 141–2
Labour Party conference and 44–5
Lady Lovat and 76, 81
militant actions 12
split in 12
trade unionists and 54–62
in the Transvaal 30–1
women’s suffrage 45–7, 67–8, 123, 145–6
working-class women and 10
suffragettes 4, 12, 133
Tagore, Rabindranath 146
tailoring trade 35, 37, 51, 59, 100
Tariff Reform 107
teaching profession
earnings 32, 82–3
earnings for women teachers 51, 52
(p.245) salary scales for men and women 52
women teachers 21, 38, 51
women teachers and the vote 125
technical instruction, women and 19, 37, 39, 84, 97, 109
Tennant, John 161, 161n20
textile trades 95
folders and sewers 51, 91, 97, 120–1
Textile Workers’ Committee 44
Theosophical Society 138
Thomson, Basil 206
Tillard, Violet 138
Times, The 14, 123
employment of barmaids 65–7, 72, 87–8
Manchester Women’s Trade Union Secretary, views of 15–17
women’s suffrage 48–9
Trade Disputes Bill 41
trade unionism 22, 48
trade unions
barmaids and 16
Bookbinders’ Union 34–5, 37
chain-makers and 20, 20n16
competition and 109
cotton unions 12, 21, 22, 25, 52, 55, 56, 97
election candidates and 56, 58
female apprentices and 100
Gore-Booth and 11
male-dominated 10
married women as members 83
parliament and 53
parliamentary candidates and 83, 91
parliamentary representation and 56, 58, 107
restrictions, women workers and 96–7, 100, 109, 122–3
women and 10, 21, 22, 25, 33, 34–5, 52
women’s suffrage movement and 54–62
Trades Congress 55, 91
Transvaal, women’s suffrage in 30–1, 31n23
Tribunal 137, 138
Troup, Sir Edward 186
undercutting 33, 58
reasons for 101, 117
unemployment 92
women’s work and 80, 90, 100
United Irish League, Young Ireland branch 229
universal male suffrage 9–10
University College Dublin (UCD) 228, 228n49
unskilled workers 82, 83, 99, 121
exclusions, effects of 108
Vagrancy Act (1898) 128
Vane, Sir Francis 230
venereal disease 128, 128n75–6
Vergniaud, Pierre Victurnien 63–4
wages
agricultural labourers 83
average for women 109
disparity men/women 38–9, 52, 60, 95
enfranchisement and 107
government rates 26–7, 38, 53, 59
increases for men 59
minimum wage for women 26
piece work rates 24, 26, 51, 80, 84, 95–6, 97, 109
rates for mule-spinners 96
shirt makers’ rates 23–4
supply and demand, laws of 108, 109, 115–24
teaching profession 32
unskilled workers and 82, 83
Ward, Mrs, views on 82, 83
women and 19, 20, 25, 37–8, 59
women’s low wages, reasons for 82–4 see also overtime; undercutting
Walsh, Edward 1n5
war 175–7, 178
nurses and 115
propaganda and 176
subjection of women and 115
‘Whence come wars?’ (speech) 139–46
women and 144–5 see also First World War
war service 137, 138
Ward, Mrs Humphrey 48, 48n39, 49, 76
Anti-Suffrage Manifesto 82
marriage, value of women’s work and 83 (p.246)
reasons for women’s low wages 83–4
work, hygienic regulations and 85
weavers 24–5, 51, 95–6
Webb, Beatrice 34n26, 59n44
Webb, Sidney 34n26, 59, 59n44
Welldon, James, Bishop 168–9
White, Lady Alice 172n26
Wilde, Oscar 165–6
Wills, Clair 185
Winchester prison 161n21
women
marriage, employment and 33–4, 37, 39, 40, 83, 91, 100
right to work 89–92, 110, 124
war and 144–5
Women Teachers’ Franchise Union 125
Women Textile Workers’ Representation Committee 67–8
women workers barmaids 12, 14, 15–16
dependent relatives and 26
displacement of 33–4, 81, 98
exclusions and 96, 108, 121
Government service and 108
legislation and 11, 12, 33–4, 88, 89, 95, 96, 99
lesser skilled jobs 97, 98
low pay and 19, 21, 25, 27–8, 31–2, 51, 58
low pay, causes of 61, 98, 122
low pay, justification for 21–2
number of wage earners 42
perception of 24
post office minimum wage and 26–7
representation by other women 85–6
restrictions for 32–4, 52, 58, 81, 89, 99
skilled 51
trade unions and 22, 32–3, 97
unskilled 51, 108
Women’s Cooperative Guild 68
Women’s Declaration Committee 14
Women’s Poor Law Guardian (Ireland) Act 9
Women’s Printing Society 135
Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) 11, 12, 42
election policy 45, 45n35
First World War recruitment campaign 133
journal 133, 133n2
Women’s Textile Committee 61
Women’s Textile Workers’ Representation Committee 47
Women’s Trade Union Council (WTUC) 10–11, 14
Women’s Trade Union League 102n60
Women’s Tribune 14
‘Fair pay for women’ 23–8
Wordsworth, William 61, 164
Working Men’s Conservative Association 106
Yeats, William Butler 1, 2, 209