The conclusion returns to the conceptual and theoretical examination outlined in Chapter 2 which initially informed and shaped the book's assessment, Lederach's exploration of the interdependence, justice and process-structure gaps, to assess the extent to which they have been narrowed by the three programmes examined. While the middle-range is certainly critical to sustaining change, this book has also found that the nature of the three programmes ensured the valuable capacity existing within the grassroots was as equally instrumental as that of the middle level in delivering and sustaining conflict transformation, particularly when the political failed, clearly demonstrating the intrinsic importance of participative democracy to representative democracy. Because of the practice perspective of this book, the conclusion acknowledges the need to marry the theoretical to the practical. It challenges governments to take up the recommendations, cognisant that this is a considerable challenge: as today's world faces growing social and economic conflict, building peace without the inclusion of social and economic development in the conflict transformation matrix as a strand of the web as necessary as the political, cultural, spiritual or psychological, will be devastating.
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