As more public and official attention was devoted to the War of Independence, pied-noir associations were left feeling that they had to actively ‘compete’ against alternative narratives and memory carrying groups in order to secure a place within this newly opened up commemorative space. Over the course of the 1990s this produced a progressively more combative and extreme form of pied-noir activism. The most obvious manifestation of this hardening of attitudes was the 1993 murder of the prominent pied-noir spokesperson Jacques Roseau by three members of his own community. However, the decade also witnessed concerted attempts to establish alternative pied-noir positions that were more tolerant of the plurality of memories and committed to forming alliances with other memory carriers in spite of differing historical understandings. Although such endeavours did not garner the same levels of visibility, they merit attention to avoid an over-simplified presentation of pied-noir activism in this decade.
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