Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Framing the moronThe social construction of feeble-mindedness in the American eugenic era$

Gerald V. O'Brien

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780719087097

Published to Manchester Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.7228/manchester/9780719087097.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM MANCHESTER SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.manchester.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Manchester University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in MSO for personal use (for details see www.manchester.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 16 January 2019

(p.174) Bibliography

(p.174) Bibliography

Source:
Framing the moron
Publisher:
Manchester University Press

Books and book chapters

Aly, G., Chroust, P. and Pross, C. Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene, trans. B. Cooper. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

Baker, L.H. Race Improvement or Eugenics: A Little Book on a Great Subject. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1912.

Beecher, H.K. Research and the Individual. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.

Biddiss, M.D. Father of Racist Ideology: The Social and Political Thought of Count Gobineau. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1970.

Black, E. War against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2003.

Blatt, B. Exodus from Pandomonium. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1970.

Blatt, B. The Conquest of Mental Retardation. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, 1987.

Boas, F. ‘Instability of human types’, in G.W. Stocking, Jr. (ed.), The Shaping of American Anthropology 1883ȓ1911: A Franz Boas Reader. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1974, pp. 214–8.

Bock, G. ‘Nazi sterilization and reproductive policies’, in Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race. Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2004, pp. 61–88.

Bowler, P.J. Evolution: The History of an Idea. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1984.

Breitman, R. The Architect of Genocide: Himmler and the Final Solution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991.

Brennan, W. Dehumanizing the Vulnerable: When Word Games Take Lives. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1995.

Brigham, C.C. A Study of American Intelligence. London: Princeton University Press, 1923.

Bruce, R.V. Bell: Alexander Graham Bell and the Conquest of Solitude. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1973.

Burbank, L. The Training of the Human Plant. New York: Century Co., 1907.

Burleigh, M. Death and Deliverance: ‘Euthanasia in Germany 1900–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Burleigh, M. The Third Reich: A New History. New York: Hill and Wang, 2000.

Calavita, K. U.S. Immigration Law and the Control of Labor: 1820–1924. London: Academic Press, Inc., 1984.

Carden, M.L. Oneida: Utopian Community to Modern Corporation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1969.

Carlson, E.A. The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2001.

(p.175) Chamberlain, H.S. Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, trans. J. Lees. New York: John Lane Co., 1913.

Chase, A. The Legacy of Malthus. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977.

Chatterton-Hill, G. Heredity and Selection in Sociology. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1907.

Chesler, E. Woman of Valor. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Childs, D.J. Modernism and Eugenics: Woolf, Eliot, Yeats, and the Culture of Degeneration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Chorover, S. From Genesis to Genocide. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1979.

Cogdell, C. Eugenic Design: Streamlining America in the 1930s. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

Cohn, N. Warrant for Genocide: The Myth of the Jewish World-Conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1966.

Conot, R.E. Justice at Nuremberg. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1983.

Cuddy, LA. and Roche, C.M. (eds.). Evolution and Eugenics in American Literature and Culture, 1880–1940. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 2003.

Curran, T.J. Xenophobia and Immigration, 1820–1930. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1975.

Currell, S. and Cogdell C. (eds.). Popular Eugenics: National Efficiency and American Mass Culture in the 1930s. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2006.

Davenport, C.B. Heredity in Relation to Eugenics. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1911.

Davenport, C.B. ‘The eugenics programme and progress in its achievement’, in Eugenics: Twelve University Lectures. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1914, pp. 1–14.

Davies, S.P. Social Control of the Mentally Deficient. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company Publishers, 1930.

Degler, C.N. In Search of Human Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

De Gobineau, A. The Inequality of Human Races, trans. A. Collins, reprint edn. Los Angeles: Noontide Press, 1966.

Deutsch, A. The Mentally Ill in America: A History of their Care and Treatment from Colonial Times. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran and Co., 1938.

Deutsch, A. The Shame of the States, reprint edn. New York: Arno Press, 1973.

Deutsch, N. Inventing America’s ‘Worst’ Family: Eugenics, Islam, and the Fall and Rise of the Tribe of Ishmael. Berkelely, CA: University of California Press, 2009.

De Vos, G.A. and Suárez-Orozco, M.M. ‘Sacrifice and the experience of power’, in G.A. De Vos and M.M. Suárez-Orozco (eds.), Status Inequality: The Self in Culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1990, pp. 120–47.

Dix, D. ‘Memorial to the legislature of Massachusetts, 1843’, in M. Rosen, G.R. Clark, and M.S. Kivitz (eds.), The History of Mental Retardation: Collected Papers, vol. I. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1976, pp. 4–30.

Dombrowski, D.A. Babies and Beasts: The Argument from Marginal Cases. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Douglas, M. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966.

(p.176) duBois, P. Centaurs and Amazons: Women and the Pre-History of the Great Chain of Being. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991.

DuBois, P.H. A History of Psychological Testing. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1970.

Dugdale, R.L. The Jukes: A Study in Crime, Pauperism, Disease, and Heredity, 4th edn. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1910.

East, E.M. Heredity and Human Affairs. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1927.

English, D.K. Unnatural Selections: Eugenics in American Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Fairchild, H.P. Immigration: A World Movement and its American Significance. New York: Macmillan Company, 1926.

Fancher, R.E. The Intelligence Men: Makers of the I.Q. Controversy. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1985.

Fielder, L. Freaks: Myths and Images of the Secret Self, reprint edn. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Fleming, G. Hitler and the Final Solution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1982.

Fletcher, J. The Ethics of Genetic Control. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1974.

Forrest, D.W. Francis Galton: The Life and Work of a Victorian Genius. New York: Taplinger Publishing Co., Inc., 1974.

Foucault, M. Madness and Civilization, trans. R. Howard. New York: Vintage Books, 1965.

Freire, P. Pedagogy of the Oppressed, trans. M.B. Ramos, reprint edn. New York: Continuum, 1986.

Friedlander, H. ‘From “euthanasia” to the “final solution”’, in Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race. Washington DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2004, pp. 155–84.

Fries K. (ed.). Staring Back: The Disability Experience from the Inside Out. New York: Penguin Putman, Inc., 1997.

Galton, F. Hereditary Genius. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1870.

Galton, F. Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development, New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1907.

Galton, F. Essays in Eugenics, reprint edn. Washington, DC: Scott Townsend Publishers, 1996.

Galton, F. ‘Eugenics as a factor in religion’, in Galton, Essays in Eugenics, pp. 68–70.

Gasman, D. The Scientific Origins of National Socialism: Social Darwinism in Ersnt Haeckel and the German Monist League. New York: American Elsevier Inc., 1971.

Gilman, S.L. Disease and Representation: Images of Illness from Madness to AIDS. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988.

Goddard, H.H. Feeble-Mindedness: Its Causes and Consequences. New York: Macmillan Co., 1914.

Goddard, H.H. The Kallikak Family. New York: Arno Press, 1912.

Goffman, E. Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1961.

(p.177) Goffman, E. Stigma. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1963.

Goldhagen, D.J. Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.

Goodey, C.F. ‘The psychopolitics of learning and disability in seventeenth-century thought’, in D. Wright and A. Dingby (eds.), From Idiocy to Mental Deficiency: Historical Perspectives on People with Learning Disabilities. London: Routledge, 1996, pp. 93–117.

Gosney, E.S., and Popenoe, P. Sterilization for Human Betterment, reprint edn. New York: Macmillan Company, 1980.

Gould, S.J. The Panda’s Thumb. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1980.

Gould, S.J. Ever Since Darwin: Reflections of Natural History. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1981.

Gould, S.J. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1981.

Gould, S.J. Dinosaur in a Haystack. New York: Harmony Books, 1995.

Grant, M. The Passing of the Great Race: Or, the Racial Basis of European History. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1916.

Grant, M. The Conquest of a Continent. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1933.

Gulick, S.J. The American Japanese Problem. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1914.

Guyer, M.F. Being Well-Born: An Introduction to Heredity and Eugenics. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1927.

Hadden, W.J. The Science of Eugenics and Sex Life, ed. C.H. Robinson 2nd edn. W.R. Vansant, 1914.

Hague, W.G. The Eugenic Marriage, vol. I. New York: Review of Reviews Company, 1914.

Haldane, J.B.S. Heredity and Politics. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1938.

Haller, M.H. Eugenics: Hereditarian Attitudes in American Thought. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1963.

Hasian, M.A., Jr. The Rhetoric of Eugenics in Anglo-American Thought. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Hertzler, J.O. The History of Utopian Thought. New York: Cooper Square Publishers, Inc., 1965.

Hilberg, R. The Destruction of the European Jaws, reprint edn. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1967.

Hillel, M. and Henry, C. Of Pure Blood, trans. E. Mossbacher. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1976.

Hitler, A. Mein Kampf, trans. R. Manheim, reprint edn. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1971.

Höhne, H. The Order of the Death’s Head, trans. R. Barry. New York: Ballantine Books, 1969.

Holmes, S.J. The Eugenic Predicament. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1933.

Holmes, S.J. Human Genetics and its Social Importance. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1936.

Hooton, E.A. Apes, Men and Morons. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1937.

(p.178) Hooton, E.A. Crime and the Man, reprint edn. New York: Greenwood Press, 1968.

Hooton, EA. The American Criminal: An Anthropological Study, reprint edn. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969.

Horsman, R. Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo Saxonism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Huntington, E. Tomorrow’s Children: The Goal of Eugenics. New York: John Wiley … Sons, Inc., 1935.

Huntington, E. and Whitney, L.F., The Builders of America. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1927.

Ingle, D.J. Who Should Have Children? Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc., 1973.

The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem, vol. IV. Dearborn, MI: Dearborn Independent, 1922.

Iseman, M.S. Race Suicide. New York: Cosmopolitan Press, 1912.

Jackson, M. The Borderland of Imbecility: Medicine, Society and the Fabrication of the Feeble Mind in Late Victorian and Edwardian England. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000.

Jefferis, B.G. and J.L. Nichols. Safe Counsel or Practical Eugenics, 37th edn. Naperville, IL: J.L. Nichols … Co., 1924.

Jennings, H.S. The Biological Basis of Human Nature. New York: W.W. Norton … Co., 1930.

Jordan, D.S. The Heredity of Richard Roe. Boston: American Unitarian Association, 1911.

The Kallikaks of Kansas: Report of the Kansas Commission on Provision for the Feeble-Minded. Topeka: Kansas State Printing Plant, 1919.

Kamin, L.J. The Science and Politics of I.Q. Potomac, MD: Lawrence Erlbaum Association, 1974.

Katz, E. (ed.). The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger, vol. I: The Woman Rebel, 1900–1928. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003.

Keen, S. Faces of the Enemy: Reflections of the Hostile Imagination. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1986.

Kevles, D.J. In the Name of Eugenics. New York: Alfred A. Knopf., 1985.

Kintner, E.W. (ed.). Trial of Alfons Klein, Adolf Wahlmann, Heinrich Ruoff, Karl Willig, Adolf Merkle, Irmgard Huber, and Philipp Blum (the Hadamar Trial). London: William Hodge and Company, Limited, 1949.

Klaw, S. Without Sin: The Life and Death of the Oneida Community. New York: Penguin Press, 1993.

Klein, A.E. Threads of Life: Genetics from Aristotle to D.N.A., Garden City, NJ: Natural History Press, 1970.

Kline, W. Building a Better Race: Gender, Sexuality and Eugenics from the Turn of the Century to the Baby Boom. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

Kostir, M.S. The Family of Sam Sixty. Mansfield, OH: Press of Ohio State Reformatory, 1916.

(p.179) Kraut, A.M. Silent Travelers: Germs, Genes and the ‘Immigrant Menace’. New York: Basic Books, 1994.

Kuhl, S. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Lakoff, G. Moral Politics: What Conservatives Know that Liberals Don’t. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M. Metaphors We Live By, 2nd edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Lane, H. The Wild Boy of Aveyron, New York: Bantam Books, 1976.

Larson, E.J. Sex, Race and Science: Eugenics in the Deep South. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Laughlin, H.H. ‘The control of trends in the racial composition of the American people’, in M. Grant and C.S. Davison (eds.), The Alien in Our Midst. New York: Galton Publishing Co., Inc., 1930, pp. 158–79.

Le Chêne, E. Mauthausen: The History of a Death Camp. London: Methuen … Co. Ltd., 1971.

Leiser, E. Nazi Cinema, trans. G. Mander and D. Wilson. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1974.

Lerner, M. (ed.). The Mind and Faith of Justice Holmes. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1943.

Levin, M.B. Political Hysteria in America. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1971.

Lifton, R.J. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1986.

Livneh, H. ‘On the origins of negative attitudes toward people with disabilities’, in R. Marinelli and A.D. Dell Orto (eds.), The Psychological and Social Impact of Disability, 3rd edn. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1991, pp. 181–96.

Lombroso, C. Crime: Its Causes and Remedies, trans. H.P. Horton, Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith, 1968.

Lovejoy, A.O. The Great Chain of Being. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966.

Lowenthal, L. and Guterman, N. Prophets of Deceit: A Study of Techniques of the American Agitator, 2nd edn. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books, 1970.

Ludmerer, K.M. Genetics and American Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1972.

Malthus, T.R. An Essay on the Principle of Population, vol. II, reprint edn. New York: Dutton, 1967.

Marinelli, R.P. & Dell Orto, A.E. (eds.). The Psychological and Social Impact of Disability, 3rd edn. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1991.

Marrus, M.R. The Unwanted. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Maxwell, A. Picture Imperfect: Photography and Eugenics 1870–1940. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2008.

McKim, W.D. Heredity and Human Progress. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1901.

McPhee, J. The Pine Barrens, 2nd edn. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, 1968.

(p.180) Miller, M.D. Terminating the ‘Socially Inadequate: The American Eugenicists and the German Race Hygienists, California to Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island to Germany. Commack, NY: Malamud-Rose, Publisher, 1996.

Miller, W.I. The Anatomy of Disgust. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Mosse, G.L. Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural and Social Life in the Third Reich. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1966.

Müller-Hill, B. Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies and Others: Germany 1933–1945, trans. G.R. Fraser. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Musolff, A. Metaphor and Political Discourse: Analogical Reasoning in Debates about Europe. Palgrave Press, 2004.

Nelkin, D. and Tancredi, L. Dangerous Diagnostics: The Social Power of Biological Information. New York: Basic Books, 1989.

Newbeck, P. Virginia hasn’t Always been for Lovers: Interracial Marriage Bans and the Case of Richard and Mildred Loving. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2004.

Nies, B.L. Eugenic Fantasies: Racial Ideology in the Literature and Popular Culture of the 1920’s. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Nietzsche, F. Beyond Good and Evil, trans. W. Kaufman, reprint edn. New York: Vintage Books, 1966.

Nietzsche, F. Twilight of the Idols/The Antichrist, trans. R.J. Hollingdale, reprint edn. New York: Penguin Books, 1968.

Nietzsche, F. Thus Spoke Zarathustra, trans. R.J. Hollingdale, reprint edn. London: Penguin Books, 1969.

Noakes, J. and Pridham, G. (eds). Nazism 1919–1945: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts, vol. II: Foreign Policy, War and Racial Extermination. New York: Schocken Books, 1988.

Noël, L. Intolerance: A General Survey, trans. A. Bennett. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1994.

O’Brien, G.V. and Molinari, A. ‘Religious metaphors as a justification for eugenic control: An historical analysis’, in D. Schumm and M. Stoltzfus (eds.), Disability in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Sacred Texts, Historical Traditions and Social Analysis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, pp. 141–65.

Olby, R. Origins of Mendelism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Oplinger, J. The Politics of Demonology. Selingsgrove: Sesquehanna University Press, 1990.

Parens, E. and Asch, A. (eds.). Prenatal Testing and Disability Rights. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2000.

Parker, R.A. A Yankee Saint. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1935.

Paul, J. ‘State eugenic sterilization history: A brief overview’, in J. Robitscher (ed.), Eugenic Sterilization. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1973, pp. 25–40.

Peel, J.D.Y. Herbert Spencer: The Evolution of a Sociologist. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1971.

(p.181) Pernick, M.S. The Black Stork: Eugenics and the Death of ‘Defective’ Babies in American Medicine and Motion Pictures since 1915. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Peterson, J. Early Conceptions and Tests of the Intelligence. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1969.

Pilcher, F.H. ‘Superintendent’s report’, in Seventh Biennial Report of the Superintendent, Kansas Asylum for Idiotic and Imbecile Youth at Winfield. Topeka: Press of the Hamilton Printing Company, 1894, pp. 7–8.

Plato, The Republic, trans. D. Lee, reprint edn. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, Ltd., 1986.

Poliakov, L. The Aryan Myth, trans. E. Howard. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1974

Popenoe, P. and Johnson, R.H. Applied Eugenics. New York: Macmillan Co., 1933.

Proctor, R.N. Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Proctor, R.N. The Nazi War on Cancer. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Rafter, N.H. White Trash: The Eugenic Family Studies 1877–1919. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1988.

Reilly, P.R. The Surgical Solution: A History of Involuntary Sterilization in the United States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

Rivera, G. Willowbrook. New York: Random House, 1972.

Roberts, P. The New Immigration. New York: Macmillan Company, 1914.

Robertson, C.N. Oneida Community. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1970.

Rosen, C. Preaching Eugenics: Religious Leaders and the American Eugenics Movement. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Sanford, N. and Comstock, C. (eds.). Sanctions for Evil. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1971.

Sanger, M. Woman and the New Race. New York: Blue Ribbon Books, 1920.

Sanger, M. The Pivot of Civilization. New York: Brentano’s Publishers, 1922.

Sax, B. Animals in the Third Reich: Pets, Scapegoats, and the Holocaust. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, Inc., 2000.

Saxton, M. ‘Why members of the disability community oppose prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion’, in Parens and Asch (eds.), Prenatal Testing and Disability Rights, pp. 147–64.

Scheerenberger, R.C. A History of Mental Retardation. Baltimore: Paul Brooks Publishing, 1983.

Scheinfeld, A. You and Heredity. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1939.

Schön, D.A. ‘Generative metaphor: A perspective on problem-setting in social policy’, in A. Ortony (ed.), Metaphor and Thought. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979, pp. 254–83.

Selden, S. Inheriting Shame: The Story of Eugenics and Racism in America. New York: Teachers College, 1999.

Selzer, M. (ed.). Kike: A Documentary History of Anti-Semitism in America. New York: World Publishing, 1972.

(p.182) Sereny, G. Into that Darkness: From Mercy Killing to Mass Murder. London: Andre Deutsch, 1974.

Shannon, T.W. Nature’s Secrets Revealed, 3rd edn. Marietta, OH: S.A. Mullikin Company, 1915.

Shaw, B. Man and Superman, reprint edn. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1952.

Shockley, W. ‘Eugenic, or anti-dysgenic, thinking exercises’, in R. Pearson (ed.), Shockley on Eugenics and Race: The Application of Science to the Solution of Human Problems, reprint edn. Washington, DC: Scott-Townsend Publishers, 1992, pp. 210–11.

Singer, P. Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals. New York: Avon Books, 1975.

Singer, P. ‘All animals are equal’, in T. Regan and P. Singer (eds.), Animal Rights and Human Obligations, reprint edn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989, pp. 73–83.

Skultans, V. Madness and Morals: Ideas on Insanity in the Nineteenth Century. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975.

Smith, J.D. Minds Made Feeble: The Myth and Legacy of the Kallikaks. Austin, TX: Pro- Ed, 1985.

Smith, J.D. and Nelson, K.R. The Sterilization of Carrie Buck. Far Hills, NJ: New Horizon Press, 1989.

Sontag, S. Illness as Metaphor and AIDS and its Metaphors. New York: Anchor Books, 1990.

Spencer, H. Social Statics, abridged and rev. version. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1893.

Spencer, H. The Study of Sociology. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1904.

Spiro, J.P. Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Press, 2009.

Stoddard, L. The Rising Tide of Color against White World-Supremacy. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1922.

Stoddard, L. The Revolt against Civilization: The Menace of the Under Man. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1923.

Stoddard, L. Racial Realities in Europe. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1925.

Stoddard, L. Into the Darkness: Nazi Germany Today. New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce, Inc., 1940.

Szasz, T. The Manufacture of Madness: A Comparative Study of the Inquisition and the Mental Health Movement. New York: Harper and Row, 1970.

Talbot, E.S. Degeneracy: Its Causes, Signs, and Results, reprint edn. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1984.

Taylor, F.W. Scientific Management, reprint edn. (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1947.

Thomson, R.G. ‘Seeing the disabled: Visual rhetorics of disability in popular photography’, in P.K. Longmore and L. Umansky (eds.), The New Disability History. New York: New York University Press, 2001, pp. 335–74.

Thorndike, L. A History of Magic and Experimental Science, vol. VIII, reprint edn. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964.

Tooley, M. Abortion and Infanticide. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.

(p.183) Trent, J.W., Jr. Inventing the Feeble Mind: A History of Mental Retardation in the United States. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Tucker, W.H. The Science and Politics of Racial Research. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996.

Von Maltitz, H. The Evolution of Hitler’s Germany. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973.

Warne, F.J. The Immigrant Invasion, reprint edn. New York: American Immigration Library, 1971.

Weindling, P. Health, Race and German Politics between National Unification and Naziism, 1870–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Weindling, P. Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Weir, R.F. Selective Nontreatment of Handicapped Newborns, New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.

Weiss, F.F. The Sieve: Boston: Page Co., 1921.

Wertham, F. A Sign for Cain: An Exploration of Human Violence. New York: Macmillan Co., 1966.

West, R. Pickled Punks and Girlie Shows: A Life Spent on the Midways of America. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, 2011.

Whetham, W. and Whetham, C. The Family and the Nation: A Study in Natural Inheritance and Social Responsibility. London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1909.

Whitney, L.F. The Source of Crime. Reprinted from Christian Work Magazine by the American Eugenics Society, Inc. (1926).

Whitney, L.F. The Case for Sterilization. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1934.

Wiggam, A.E. The New Decalogue of Science. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1923.

Wiggam, A.E. The Fruit of the Family Tree. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1924.

Wiggam, A.E. The Next Age of Man. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1927.

Wolfensberger, W. The Principle of Normalization in Human Services. Toronto: National Institute on Mental Retardation, 1972.

Wolfensberger, W. The New Genocide of Handicapped and Afflicted People, rev. edn. Syracuse, NY: Author, 1992.

Yukins, E. ‘Feeble-minded white women and the spectre of proliferating perversity in American eugenics narratives’, in L.A. Cuddy and C.M. Roche (eds.), Evolution and Eugenics in American Literature and Culture, 1880–1940: Essays on Ideological Conflict and Complicity. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 2003, pp. 164–86.

Zenderland, L. Measuring Minds: Henry Herbert Goddard and the Origins of American Intelligence Testing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Ziemer, G. Education for Death: The Making of the Nazi. London: Oxford University Press, 1941.

Conference and association proceedings and government documents

(p.184) Bancroft, M. ‘Classification of the mentally deficient’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, 1901, pp. 191–9.

Barr, M.W. ‘The imbecile and epileptic versus the tax-payer and the community’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, 1902, pp. 161–5.

Barr, M.W. ‘The prevention of mental defect, the duty of the hour’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Chicago: Hildmann Printing Co., 1915, pp. 361–7.

Broomall, J.M. ‘The helpless classes’, in Proceedings of the Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Idiotic and Feeble-Minded Persons. New York: Johnson Reprint Company Limited, 1887–95, pp. 38–41.

Buck v. Bell, 143 Va. Ct. App. Keyser-Doherty Printing Co., 1926, pp. 310–24.

Bullard, W.N. ‘State care of high-grade imbecile girls’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Press of the Archer Printing Co., 1910, pp. 299–303.

Butler, A.W. ‘The burden of feeble-mindedness’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Indianapolis: Press of Wm. B. Burford, 1907, pp. 1–10.

Carson, J.C. ‘Prevention of feeble-mindedness from a moral and legal standpoint’, in Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction. Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, 1898, pp. 294–303.

Cole, L.J. ‘The relation of philanthropy and medicine to race betterment’, in Proceedings of the First National Conference on Race Betterment. Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1914, pp. 494–508.

Congressional Record, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 18 February 1942, pp. 1419–20; 26 February 1942, pp. 1682–3.

Davenport, C.B. ‘Eugenics and charity’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Fort Wayne, IN: Fort Wayne Printing Company, 1912, pp. 280–2.

Davenport, C.B. ‘Marriage laws and customs’, in Problems in Eugenics: Papers Communicated to the First International Eugenics Congress. London: Eugenics Education Society, 1912, pp. 151–5.

Davenport, C.B. ‘Field work an indispensable aid to state care of the socially inadequate’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Chicago: Hildemann Printing Co., 1915, pp. 312–15.

Davenport, C.B. ‘Presidential address: The development of eugenics’, in A Decade of Progress in Eugenics: Scientific Papers of the Third International Congress of Eugenics. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Company, 1934, pp. 17–22.

DeVilbiss, L.A. ‘Better babies contests’, in Proceedings of the First National Conference on Race Betterment. Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1914, pp. 554–5.

‘Discussion on provision for the feeble-minded’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, 1888, pp. 395–402.

(p.185) Dugdale, R.L. ‘Hereditary pauperism’, in Proceedings of the Conference of Charities. Boston: A. Williams … Co., 1877, pp. 81–99.

Eighteenth Biennial Report of the State Home for Feeble-Minded, Winfield, Kansas. Topeka: Kansas State Printing Plant, 1916.

Estabrook, A.H. ‘The Tribe of Ishmael’, in Eugenics, Genetics and the Family, vol. I: Scientific Papers of the Second International Congress of Eugenics. Baltimore: Williams … Wilkins Company, 1923, pp. 398–404.

Europe as an Emigrant-Exporting Continent and the United States as an Immigrant Receiving Nation. U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Immigration and Naturalization. Testimony of Harry H. Laughlin, 8 March 1924, pp. 1231–318.

Fernald, W.E. ‘Care of the feeble-minded’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Press of Fred J. Heer, 1904, pp. 380–90.

Fernald, W.E. ‘What is practical in the way of prevention of mental defect?’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Chicago: Hildemann Printing Co., 1915, pp. 289–307.

Fisher, I. ‘Public health as a social movement’, in Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work. Chicago: National Conference of Social Work, 1917, pp. 183–93.

Gilman, R. ‘Better babies’, in Proceedings of the First National Conference on Race Betterment. Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1914, pp. 272–8.

Guyer, M.F. ‘Sterilization’, in Proceedings of the Wisconsin Conference on Charities and Corrections. Madison: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1913, pp. 33–60.

Hart, H.H. ‘Segregation’, in Proceedings of the First National Conference on Race Betterment. Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1914, pp. 403–10.

Hickson, W.J. ‘The criminal in everyday life’, in Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Race Betterment. Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1928, pp. 148–53.

Hinshaw, T.E. ‘Physician’s report’, in Twenty-Second Biennial Report of the State Training School, Winfield Kansas. Topeka: Kansas State Printing Plant, 1924, p. 19.

Jennings, H.S. ‘Health progress and race progress: Are they compatible?’, in American Association for the Study of the Feeble-Minded: Proceedings and Addresses of the Fifty-First Annual Session. American Association for the Study of the Feeble-Minded, 1927, pp. 232–42.

Johnson, A. ‘Permanent custodial care: Report of Committee on the Care of the Feeble Minded’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, 1896, pp. 207–19.

Johnson, A. ‘Custodial care’, in Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction. Fort Wayne, IN: Press of Fort Wayne Printing Co., 1908, pp. 333–6.

Johnstone, E.R. ‘Practical provision for the mentally deficient’, in Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction. Fort Wayne, IN: Press of Fort Wayne Printing Co., 1908, pp. 316–25.

Johnstone, E.R. ‘Committee report: Stimulating public interest in the feeble-minded’, in Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction. Chicago: Hildmann Printing Co., 1916, pp. 205–15.

(p.186) Keene, G.F. ‘The genesis of the defective’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Press of Fred J. Heer, 1904, pp. 407–18.

Kellogg, J.H. ‘Eugenics and immigration: Needed - a new human race’, in Proceedings of the First National Conference on Race Betterment. Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1914, pp. 431–42.

Kellogg, J.H. ‘Eugenics Registry Office’, in Proceedings of the First National Conference on Race Betterment. Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1914, pp. 564–5.

Knight, G.H. ‘Prevention from a legal and moral standpoint’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, 1898, pp. 304–8.

Little, C.C. ‘President’s address: Shall we live longer and should we?’, in Proceedings of the Third Race Betterment Conference. Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1928, pp. 5–19.

McDougall, W. ‘A national fund for a new plan of remuneration as a eugenic measure’, in Second International Congress of Eugenics, vol. II. Baltimore: Williams … Wilkins Company, 1923, pp. 62–3.

MacMurchy, H. ‘The relation of feeble-mindedness to other social problems’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Chicago: Hildmann Printing Co., 1916, pp. 229–35.

Martin, W.F. ‘Better babies contest’, in Proceedings of the First National Conference on Race Betterment. Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1914, pp. 554–5.

Mastin, J.T. ‘The new colony plan for the feeble-minded’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Chicago: Hildmann Printing Co., 1916, pp. 239–50.

Mott, A.J. ‘The education and custody of the imbecile’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Boston: Press of Geo. H. Ellis, 1894, pp. 168–79.

Murdoch, J.M. ‘Quarantine mental defectives’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Fort Wayne, IN: Fort Wayne Printing Co., 1909, pp. 64–7.

Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. V. Office of United States Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1947.

Olson, Judge H. ‘The menace of the half-man’, in Proceedings of the Third Race Betterment Conference. Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1928, pp. 122–47.

Plecker, W.A. ‘Virginia’s effort to preserve racial integrity’, in A Decade of Progress in Eugenics: Scientific Papers of the Third International Congress of Eugenics. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkens Co., 1934, pp. 105–12.

Robie, T.R. ‘Selective sterilization for race culture’, in A Decade of Progress in Eugenics: Scientific Papers of the Third International Congress of Eugenics. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkens Co., 1934, pp. 201–9.

(p.187) Rogers, A.C. ‘Colonizing the feeble-minded’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Press of Fred J. Heer, 1903, pp. 254–8.

Sanborn, B.T. ‘The care of the feeble-minded’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Press of Fred J. Heer, 1904, pp. 401–7.

Southard, E.E. ‘The feeble-minded as subjects of research in efficiency’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Chicago: Hildemann Printing Co., 1915, pp. 315–19.

Stern, L. ‘Heredity and environment: The Bilder clan’, in Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1922, pp. 179–89.

Sumner, Rev. W.T. ‘The health certificate: A safeguard against vicious selection in marriage’, in Proceedings of the First National Conference on Race Betterment. Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1914, pp. 509–12.

Taft, J. ‘Supervision of the feeble-minded in the community’, in Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work. Chicago: Rogers … Hall Co., 1918, pp. 543–50.

United States Department of Energy. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments: Final Report, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.

Van Wagenen, B. ‘The eugenic problem’, in Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction. Fort Wayne, IN: Fort Wayne Printing Company, 1912, pp. 275–9.

Ward, R.D. ‘Race betterment and our immigration laws’, in Proceedings of the First Race Betterment Conference. Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1914, pp. 542–6.

Warthin, A.S. ‘A biologic philosophy or religion a necessary foundation for race betterment’, in Proceedings of the Third Race Betterment Conference. Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1928, pp. 86–90.

Weidensall, J. ‘The mentality of the unmarried mother’, in Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work. Chicago: National Conference of Social Work, 1917, pp. 287–94.

Wells, K.G. ‘State regulation of marriage’, in Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction, Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, 1897, pp. 302–8.

Whitney, E.A. and Shick, M.M. ‘Some results of selective sterilization’, in American Association for the Study of the Feeble-Minded: Proceedings and Addresses of the Fifty-Fifth Annual Session. American Association for the Study of the Feeble-Minded, 1931, pp. 330–38.

Wilmarth, A.W. ‘Report of Committee on Feeble-Minded and Epileptic’, in Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction. Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, 1902, pp. 152–61.

Wright, A.O. ‘The defective classes’, in Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction. Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, 1891, pp. 222–9.

Journal and newspaper articles

(p.188) Allbritton, D.W. ‘When metaphors function as schemas: Some cognitive effects of conceptual metaphors’, Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 10 (1995), 33–46.

Allen, G.E. ‘Science misapplied: The eugenic age revisited’, Technology Review 99:6 (1996), 23–31.

Altman, R. ‘Selection from the skies’, (translation), Living Age 357:4477 (1939), 132–5.

Annas, G.J. ‘Reframing the debate on health care reform by replacing our metaphors’, New England Journal of Medicine 332 (1995), 744–7.

‘Ape-footed man’, Eugenics 1:2 (1928), 27.

Armstrong, C. ‘The moron menace’, Birth Control Review 22:5 (1938), 52–3.

‘Autopsy Puts boy in class of defectives’, New York Times (18 November 1915), 1.

Baldwin, B.T. ‘The psychology of mental deficiency’, Popular Science Monthly 79 (1911), 82–93.

Barr, M.W. ‘President’s annual address’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 2 (1897), 1–13.

Barr, M.W. ‘Defective children: Their needs and their rights’, International Journal of Ethics 8 (1898), 481–90.

Barr, M.W. ‘Mental defectives and the social welfare’, Popular Science Monthly 54 (1899), 746–59.

Batten, S.Z. ‘The redemption of the unfit’, American Journal of Sociology 14 (1908), 233–60.

Bell, A.G. ‘How to improve the race’, Journal of Heredity 5:1 (1914), 1–7.

Bicknell, E.P. ‘Custodial care of the adult feeble-minded’, Charities Review 5 (November 1895–June 1896), 76–88.

Binding, K. and Hoche, A. ‘Permitting the destruction of unworthy life: Its extent and form’ (1920), trans. W.E. Wright, Issues in Law and Medicine 8 (1992), 231–65.

‘“Biological Purge” is urged by Hooton’, New York Times (21 February 1937), section II, 1–2.

‘Birth control is peril to race, says Osborn’, New York Times (23 August 1932), 1, 16.

Blount, A. ‘Eugenics in relation to birth control’, Birth Control Review 2:1 (1918), 7, 15.

Bock, G. ‘Racism and sexism in Nazi Germany: Motherhood, compulsory sterilization, and the state’, Signs 8 (1983), 400–21.

Bogdan, R. ‘Exhibiting mentally retarded people for amusement and profit, 1850–1940’, American Journal of Mental Deficiency 91 (1986), 120–6.

Brave, R. and Sylva, K. ‘Exhibiting eugenics: Response and resistance to a hidden history’, Public Historian 29:3 (2007), 33–51.

Bryce, P.H. ‘Feeble-Mindedness and social environment’, American Journal of Public Health 8 (1918), 656–60.

Buell, R.L. ‘The development of anti-Japanese agitation in the United States, II’, Political Science Quarterly 38 (1923), 57–81.

Burke, C.S. and Castaneda, C.J. ‘The public and private history of eugenics: An introduction’, Public Historian 29:3 (2007), 5–17.

(p.189) Butler, A.W. ‘A notable factor of social degeneracy’, Indiana Bulletin (December 1901), 17–25.

Campbell, C. ‘Praise for Nazis’, Time (9 September 1935), 20–1.

Cannon, C.J. ‘Selecting citizens’, North American Review 217 (1923), 325–33.

‘Case for sterilization’, Living Age 357 (1939), 135–7.

‘Christ was an Aryan’, Living Age 352 (1937), 318–21.

Clark, L.P. ‘Idiocy and laboratory research’, Survey 27 (1912), 1857–60.

Cockburn, A. ‘Beat the devil’, Nation (23 November 1992), 618–19.

Cockburn, A. ‘Social cleansing’, New Statesman and Society (August 1994), 16–18.

Cohen, C.B. ‘The Nazi analogy in bioethics’ (commentary), Hastings Center Report 18:5 (1988), 32–3.

Cole, L.J. ‘Biological eugenics’, Journal of Heredity 5 (1914), 305–12.

‘Committee on Cooperation with Clergymen’, Eugenical News 10:5 (1925), 68.

Cox, I.W. ‘The folly of human sterilization’, Scientific American 151 (1934), 188–90.

Crook, P. ‘American eugenics and the Nazis: Recent historiography’, European Legacy 7 (2002), 363–81.

Daggett, M.P. ‘Women: Building a better race’, World’s Work 25 (1912), 229–34.

Darlington, T. ‘The medico-economic aspect of the immigration problem’, North American Review 183 (1906), 1262–71.

Davenport, C.B. ‘Report of Committee on Eugenics’, American Breeders Magazine 1:2 (1910), 126–9.

Davenport, C.B. ‘The origin and control of mental defectiveness’, Popular Science Monthly 80 (1912), 87–90.

Davenport, C.B. ‘The Nams: The feeble-minded as country dwellers’, Survey 27 (1912), 1844–45.

Davenport, C.B. ‘Importance of heredity to the state’, Indiana Bulletin (September 1913), 394–413.

Davenport, C.B. ‘Research in eugenics’, Science 54 (1921), 391–6.

Davenport, G.C. ‘Hereditary crime’, American Journal of Sociology 13 (November 1907), 402–9.

Davis, J.J. ‘Jail - or a passport: Some facts and views of immigration’, Saturday Evening Post (1 December 1923), 23, 134, 137.

Davis, K.B. ‘Feeble-minded women in reformatory institutions’, Survey 27 (1912), 1849–51.

‘Doctor to let patient’s baby defective die’, Chicago Tribune (17 November 1915), 1.

Dodge, E. ‘Bettering the birthrates’, Journal of Heredity 15:3 (1924), 113–18.

‘Does the world need more morons?’, Eugenics 2:4 (1929), 20–2.

Drimmer, J.C. ‘Cripples, overcomers, and civil rights: Tracing the evolution of federal legislation and social policy for people with disabilities’, UCLA Law Review 40 (1993), 1341–410.

Dudziak, M.L. ‘Oliver Wendell Holmes as a eugenic reformer: Rhetoric in the writing of constitutional law’, Iowa Law Review 71 (1986), 833–67.

‘Echoes of the Eugenics Congress ’, Journal of Heredity 23 (1932), 385–6.

(p.190) Elks, M.A. ‘The “lethal chamber”: Further evidence for the euthanasia option’, Mental Retardation 31 (1993), 201–7.

Ellis, W.T. ‘Americans on guard’, Saturday Evening Post (25 August 1923), 23, 80, 83, 86.

Ellwood, W.N. ‘Declaring war on the home front: Metaphor, presidents, and the war on drugs’, Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 10:2 (1995), 93–114.

Emerson, H. ‘Eugenics in relation to medicine’, Journal of Heredity 30 (1939), 553–6.

Enderis, G. ‘Reich takes over rights of states’, New York Times (31 January 1934), 13.

Estabrook, A.H. ‘A two-family apartment’, Survey 29 (1913), 853–4.

‘Eugenical sterilization in Germany’, Eugenical News 18:5 (1933), 89–94.

‘Eugenics and democracy: A paradox’, Journal of Heredity 23:5 (1932), 221–2.

‘Eugenics supported by the church’, Current Literature 52 (1912), 565–6.

Evans, S.W. ‘Eugenics on parade’, Eugenics 3:10 (1930), 390–4.

Fairchild, H.P. ‘From dysgenic to eugenic birth control’, Birth Control Review 2:7 (1935), 2–3.

‘Feeble minded boys committed under new law’, Chicago Tribune (19 November 1915), 5.

Fernald, W.E. ‘The imbecile with criminal instincts’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 14 (1909), 16–36.

Fernald, W.E. ‘The burden of feeble-mindedness’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 17 (1912), 87–99.

Fernald, W.E. ‘The feeble-minded’, Educational Review 54 (1917), 118–27.

Fisher, I. ‘Impending problems of eugenics’, Scientific Monthly 13 (1921), 214–31.

Frankel, C. ‘The specter of eugenics’, Commentary 57 (March 1974), 25–33.

Frazer, E. ‘Our foreign cities: Chicago’, Saturday Evening Post (25 August 1923), 14.

Frick, W. ‘German population and race politics’, trans. A. Hellmer, Eugenical News 19:2 (1934), 33–8.

Frost, W.A. ‘A race of human thoroughbreds: An authorized interview with Alexander Graham Bell’, World’s Work 27 (1913), 176–82.

‘The future of America: A biological forecast’, Harpers Magazine 156 (1928), 529–39.

Gallagher, H.G. ‘“Slapping up spastics”: The persistence of social attitudes toward people with disabilities’, Issues in Law & Medicine 10 (1995), 401–14.

Galton, F. ‘Eugenics: Its definition, scope, and aims’, American Journal of Sociology 10 (1904), 1–25 (discussion included).

Gamble, C.J. ‘Eugenic sterilization in the United States’, Eugenical News 34: 1–2 (1949), 1–5.

Gardner, J.M. ‘Contribution of the German cinema to the Nazi euthanasia program’, Mental Retardation 20 (1982), 174–5.

Gelb, S.A. ‘The beast in man: Degeneration and mental retardation, 1900–1920’, Mental Retardation 33 (1995), 1–9.

Gerdtz, J., ‘Disability and euthanasia: The case of Helen Keller and the Bollinger baby’, Life and Learning 16 (2006), 491–500.

Goddard, H.H. ‘Psychological work among the feeble-minded’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 12 (1907), 18–30.

(p.191) Goddard, H.H. ‘Four hundred feeble-minded children classified by the Binet method’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 15 (1910), 17–30.

Goddard, H.H. ‘Wanted: A child to adapt’, Survey 27 (1911), 1003–6.

Goddard, H.H. ‘The basis for state policy: Social investigation and prevention’, Survey 27 (1912), 1852–4.

Goddard, H.H. ‘Sterilization and segregation’, Indiana Bulletin (December 1912), 424–8.

Goddard, H.H. ‘The hereditary factor in feeble-mindedness’, Institution Quarterly 4:2 (1913), 9–11.

Gosney, E.S. ‘Eugenic sterilization: Human betterment demands it’, Scientific American 151 (1934), 18–19, 52–3.

‘Guarding the gates against undesirables’, Current Opinion 76 (1924), 400–1.

Hanauske-Able, H.M. ‘From Nazi holocaust to nuclear holocaust: A lesson to learn?’, Lancet 2:8501 (1986), 271–3.

Harding, T.S. ‘Are we breeding weaklings?’, American Journal of Sociology 42 (1936), 672–81.

Hardt, H.G. ‘Care of feeble-minded women’, Institution Quarterly 3:1 (1912), 179–86.

Harrington, A. ‘Metaphoric connections: Holistic science in the shadow of the Third Reich’, Social Research 62 (1995), 357–85.

Haslam, N. ‘Dehumanization: An integrative review’, Personality and Social Psychology Review 10 (2006), 252–64.

Henley, M. ‘The creation and perpetuation of the mother/body myth: Judicial and legislative enlistment of Norplant’, Buffalo Law Review 41 (1993), 734–59.

Hollander, R. ‘Euthanasia and mental retardation: Thinking the unthinkable’, Mental Retardation 27 (1989), 53–62.

Holmes, A. ‘Eugenics’, Institution Quarterly 5:1 (1914), 151–61.

Holt, W.L. ‘Economic factors in eugenics’, Popular Science Monthly 83 (1913), 471–83.

‘Hooton finds man reverting to ape’, New York Times (4 December 1937), 27.

Humphrey, S. ‘Parenthood and social conscience’, Forum 49 (1913), 457–64.

Humphrey, S. ‘Men and half-men’, Scribners Magazine 73 (1923), 284–7.

‘Husbanding the nation’s manhood’, World’s Work 20 (1910), 13470–1.

‘Immigration checks the native birth rate’, World’s Work 46 (1923), 121–2.

‘Intelligence wane seen by Dr. Hooton’, New York Times (18 February 1937), 1.

Irwin, E.A. ‘Fragments of humanity’, Survey (2 March 1912), 1875.

‘Is serum hepatitis only a special type of infectious hepatitis?’, Journal of the American Medical Association 200 (1967), 136–7.

Jenish, D. ‘What would you do?’, Maclean’s 107:48 (1994), 16–24.

Johnson, A. ‘The case of the nation vs. the feeble-minded’, Survey 34 (1915), 136–7.

Johnson, A. ‘Children who never grow up: Some adventures among the feeble-minded’, Survey 49 (1922–23), 310–16, 340.

Johnson, A. ‘Mixed crops: Some more adventures among the feeble-minded’, Survey 49 (1922–23), 439–44, 465–6.

Johnson, E.H. ‘Feeble-minded as city dwellers’, Survey 27 (1912), 1840–3.

‘The Jukes in 1915’, Journal of Heredity 7 (1916), 469–74.

(p.192) Keller, H. ‘Physicians’ juries for defective babies’ (letter to the editor), New Republic (18 December 1915), 173.

Kempton, J.H. ‘Sterilization for ten million Americans’ (book review), Journal of Heredity 25 (1934), 415–18.

Kennedy, A.C. ‘Eugenics, “degenerate girls”, and social workers during the Progressive Era’, Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 23 (2008), 22–37.

Kennedy, F. ‘Euthanasia: To be or not to be’, Colliers 103 (20 May 1939), 15–16.

Kirkbride, F.B. ‘The right to be well-born’, Survey 27 (1912), 1838–9.

Kirkbride, M.B. ‘The army of sorrow’, Survey 26 (1911), 228.

Kite, E.S. ‘Two brothers’, Survey 27 (1912), 1861–4.

Kite, E.S. ‘Unto the third generation’, Survey 28 (1912), 789–91.

Kite, E.S. ‘Mental defect as found by the field-worker’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 17 (1913), 145–54.

Kite, E.S. ‘The “Piney’s”’, Survey 31 (1913), 9–13, 38–40.

Knox, H.A. ‘Tests for mental defects’, Journal of Heredity 5 (1914), 122–30.

Krohn, F. ‘Military metaphors’, Et Cetera: A Review of General Semantics 44 (1987), 141–5.

Krugman, S., Giles, J., and Hammond, J. ‘Infectious hepatitis: Evidence for two distinctive clinical, epidemiological and immunological types of infection’, Journal of the American Medical Association 200 (1967), 95–103.

Lakoff, G. ‘Metaphor, morality, and politics, or, Why conservatives have left liberals in the dust’, Social Research 62 (1995), 177–213.

Landman, J.H. ‘Race betterment by human sterilization’, Scientific American 150 (1934), 292–5.

Laughlin, H.H. ‘Report on the organization and the first eight months’ work of the Eugenics Record Office’, American Breeders Magazine 2:2 (1911), 107–12.

Laughlin, H.H. ‘An account of the work of the Eugenics Record Office’, American Breeders Magazine 3:2 (1912), 119–23.

Laughlin, H.H. ‘First Annual Conference of Eugenics Field Workers’, American Breeders Magazine 3:4 (1912), 265–9.

Laughlin, H.H. ‘The eugenical sterilization of the feeble-minded’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 31(1925), 210–18.

Laughlin, H.H. ‘Further studies on the historical and legal development of eugenical sterilization in the United States’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 41 (1936), 96–110.

Laughlin, H.H. Letter to Dr C. Schneider, 28 May 1936. Harry H. Laughlin Papers, Pectler Memorial Library, Truman State University.

LeBourdais, D.M. ‘Purifying the human race’, North American Review 238 (1934), 431–7.

Lennox, W.G. ‘Should they live?’, American Scholar 7 (1938), 454–66.

‘Lets afflicted baby die’, The New York Times (28 January 1918), 6.

Levine, D.N. ‘The organism metaphor in sociology’, Social Research 62 (1995), 239–65.

Lorimar, F. ‘Eugenics and birth control’, Birth Control Review 16:8 (1932), 229–31.

Lovett, L.L. ‘“Fitter families for future firesides”: Florence Sherbon and popular eugenics’, Public Historian 29:3 (2007), 69–85.

Lyons, A. ‘Ungraded parents’, Education 38 (1917), 338–40.

(p.193) MacMurchy, H. ‘The relation of feeble-mindedness to other social problems’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 21 (1916), 58–63.

‘Major Darwin predicts civilization’s doom unless century brings wide eugenic reforms’, New York Times (23 August 1932), 16.

‘The menace of the feeble-minded’, Eugenical News 11:2 (1926), 34–5.

Mencken, H.L. ‘Utopia by sterilization’, American Mercury 41 (1937), 399–408.

‘Mercy death law ready for albany’, New York Times (14 February 1939), 2.

‘Minutes of the Association’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 22 (1917), 20–37.

Mügge, M.A. ‘Eugenics and the superman: A racial science, and a racial religion’, Eugenics Review 1 (1909–10), 184–206.

Musolff, A. ‘What role do metaphors play in racial prejudice? The function of anti-semitic imagery in Hitler’s Mein Kampf, Patterns of Prejudice 41 (2007), 21–43.

‘Nazified medicine’, New York Times (6 December 1942), section IV, 11.

‘The need for further study of the Piney families’, Eugenical News 10:6 (1925), 77–8.

Nelkin, D. and Gilman, S.L. ‘Placing blame for devastating disease’, Social Research 55 (1988), 361–78.

‘A new force in the war on feeble-mindedness’, Survey 29 (1913), 487–9.

‘New German etymology for eugenics’, Eugenical News 19:5 (1934), 125–6.

O’Brien, G.V. ‘“Protecting the social body: Use of the organism metaphor in fighting the “menace of the feeble-minded”’, Mental Retardation 37 (1999), 188–200.

O’Brien, G.V. ‘Indigestible food, conquering hordes, and waste materials: Metaphors of immigrants and the early immigration restriction debate in the U.S.’, Metaphor and Symbol 18 (2003), 33–47.

O’Brien, G.V. ‘Speciesism revisited: The potential for reversibility of the argument from marginal cases (AMC)’, Social Work 48 (2003), 331–7.

O’Brien, G.V. ‘Metaphors and the pejorative framing of marginalized groups: Implications for social work education’, Journal of Social Work Education 45 (2009), 29–46.

O’Brien, G.V. ‘social justice implications of the organism metaphor’, Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 37 (2010), 95–113.

O’Brien, G.V. ‘Anchors on the ship of progress and weeds in the human garden: Objectivist rhetoric in American eugenic writings’, Disability Studies Quarterly 31:3 (2011), www.dsq-sds.org, accessed August 2011.

O’Brien, G.V. ‘Eugenics, genetics and the minority group model of disabilities: Implications for social work advocacy’, Social Work 56 (2011), 347–54.

O’Brien, G.V. and Bundy, M. ‘“Reaching beyond the ‘moron” Eugenic control of secondary disability groups’, Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 36 (2009), 153–71.

Offen, M.L. ‘Dealing with “defectives”: Foster Kennedy and William Lennox on Eugenics’, Neurology 61 (2003), 668–3.

Paradise, V.I. ‘Three per cent’, Harper’s Monthly Magazine 144 (1922), 505–14.

Park, Y. and Kemp, S.P. ‘“Little alien colonies”: Representations of immigrants and their neighborhoods in social work discourse, 1875–1924’, Social Service Review 80 (2006), 705–34.

(p.194) Parker, G.H. ‘The eugenics movement as a public service’, Science 41 (1915), 342–7.

Peabody, J.B. ‘Putting it up to philanthropy’ (letter to the editor), Survey 29 (1912), 98–9.

Pearl, R. ‘Biology and human progress’, Harper’s Monthly Magazine 172 (1935–6), 225–35.

Pernick, M.S. ‘Contagion and culture’, American Literary History 14 (2002), 858–65.

Peter, W.W. ‘Germany’s sterilization program’, American Journal of Public Health 24 (1934), 187–91.

‘Pictures the cure for legislative sloth’, Survey 37 (1917), 725–6.

‘The plea for immigrants a plea for inefficiency’, World’s Work 46 (1923), 122–3.

Popenoe, P. ‘Birth control and eugenics’, Birth Control Review 1:3 (1917), 6.

Popenoe, P. ‘The German sterilization law’, Journal of Heredity 25 (1934), 257–60.

Popenoe, P. ‘The progress of eugenic sterilization’, Journal of Heredity 25 (1934), 19–25.

Popenoe, P. ‘Should bachelors and fathers get the same pay?’, Eugenical News 28:4 (1943), 52.

Powlison, C.F. ‘Behold a sower went forth to sow’, Birth Control Review 16:1 (1932), 5–7.

Pringle, H.N. ‘Carnival shows’, Light 140 (1921), 23–4.

‘Prizes for sermons on eugenics’, Eugenical News 11:3 (1926), 48.

Reccord, A.P. ‘A perfectly normal child’, Survey 41 (1918), 381.

Reeves, H.T. ‘The later years of a noted mental defective’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 43 (1938), 194–200.

Rentoul, R.R. ‘Proposed sterilization of certain mental degenerates’, American Journal of Sociology 12 (1906), 319–27.

Risley, S.D. ‘Is asexualization ever justifiable in the case of imbecile children?’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 9 (1905), 92–8.

Ritvo, H. ‘Border trouble: Shifting the line between people and other animals’, Social Research 62 (1995), 481–500.

Robie, T. ‘Towards race betterment’, Birth Control Review 17:4 (1933), 93–5.

Robinson, C.H. ‘Toward curbing differential births and lowering taxes: A plank or two for eugenic platforms’, Journal of Heredity 29 (1938), 230–4.

Robinson, C.H. ‘Toward curbing differential births and lowering taxes, II: Eugenic custody for unfit breeders’, Journal of Heredity 29 (1938), 260–4.

Roosevelt, T. ‘Twisted eugenics’, American Motherhood 38 (1914), 308–12.

Roper, A.G. ‘Ancient eugenics’, Mankind Quarterly 32 (1992), 383–418.

Ryan, P.J. ‘“Six blacks from home”: Childhood, motherhood, and eugenics in America’, Journal of Policy History 19 (2007), 253–81.

Ryder, D.W. ‘The Japanese Bugaboo’, American Mercury 3 (September 1924), 24–30.

Sanger, M. ‘Birth control and racial betterment’, Birth Control Review 3:2 (1919), 11–12.

Sanville, F.L. ‘Social legislation in the Keystone State: A program in behalf of the mentally unfit’, Survey 33 (1915), 667–70. ‘“Saving Homo sapiens”: Professor Hooton Sees hope only in applying eugenics’, New York Times (28 February 1927), section XII, 8.

(p.195) Schwartz, K. ‘Nature’s corrective principle in social evolution’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 13 (1908), 74–90.

‘Service from imbeciles’, Literary Digest 53 (1916), 554–5.

Sessions, M.A. ‘Feeble-minded in Ohio’, Journal of Heredity 8 (1917), 291–7.

Shannon, T.W. ‘Double standard and race degeneracy’, Light 138 (March–April 1921), 35–9.

Shakespeare, T. ‘Cultural representation for disabled people: Dustbins for disavowal?’, Disability … Society 9 (1994), 283–99.

Sherbon, F.B. ‘Eugenics and democracy: Are the two compatible?’, Eugenics 2:9 (1929), 28–9.

Shipley, M. ‘The sterilization of defectives’, American Mercury 15 (1928), 454–7.

Slater, E. ‘German eugenics in practice’, Eugenics Review 27:4 (1936), 285–95.

Smith, J.D. ‘Reflections on mental retardation and eugenics, old and new: Mensa and the Human Genome Project’, Mental Retardation 32 (1994), 234–8.

‘Sterilization law is termed humane’, New York Times (22 January 1934), 6.

‘Sterilize the feeble-minded? Pro and con’, Reader’s Digest 32 (May 1938), 97–103.

Stoddard, L. ‘Worthwhile Americans’, Saturday Evening Post 197 (17 January 1925), 23, 146–7, 149–50.

Storer, M. ‘The defective delinquent girl’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 19 (1914), 25–30.

Strother, F. ‘The cause of crime: Defective brain’, World of Work 48 (1924), 275–86.

Thomalia, C. ‘The sterilization law in Germany’, trans. A. Hellmer, Eugenical News 19:6 (1934), 137–40.

Thompson, C.B. ‘Conservation of minds’ (letter to the editor), Survey 38 (1917), 362.

Thurston, R. ‘The Nazi war on medicine’, New Republic 84 (4 December 1935), 100–2.

Trent, J.W., Jr. ‘Defectives at the World’s Fair: Constructing disability in 1904’, Remedial and Special Education 19 (1998), 201–11.

‘“The typhoon”: A dramatization of the yellow peril’, Current Literature 52 (1912), 567–73.

‘U.S. Eugenicist hails Nazi racial policy’, New York Times (29 August 1935), 5.

Van Wagenen, B. ‘Surgical sterilization as a eugenic measure’, Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 18 (1914), 185–96.

Voss, J.F., Kennet, J., Wiley, J., and Schooler, T.Y.E. ‘Experts at debate: The use of metaphor in the U.S. Senate debate on the Gulf Crisis’, Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 7 (1992), 197–214.

Wallin, W.E.W. ‘A program for the state care of the feeble-minded and epileptic’, School and Society 4 (11 November 1916), 723–31.

Ward, R.D. ‘Natural eugenics in relation to immigration’, North American Review 192 (1910), 56–67.

Ward, R.D. ‘The crisis in our immigration policy’, Institution Quarterly 4:2 (1913), 37–50.

Ward, R.D. ‘Eugenic immigration’, American Breeders Magazine 4:2 (1913), 96–102.

‘Was the doctor right? Some independent opinions’, Independent 85:3500 (1916), 23–27.

(p.196) Weingartner, J. ‘War against subhumans: Comparisons between the German war against the Soviet Union and the American war against Japan, 1941–1945’, Historian 58 (1996), 557–73.

Whelpley, J.D. ‘The overtaxed melting-pot’, Living Age 281 (1914), 67–72.

Whitney, E.A. ‘A hunt for society’s danger spot’, Eugenics 1:1 (1928), 25–30.

Whelpley, J.D. ‘A plea for the control of feeble-mindedness’, Eugenics 2:5 (1929), 12–13.

Whelpley, J.D. ‘Selective sterilization’ Birth Control Review 17:4 (1933), 85–7.

Wiggam, A.E. ‘The rising tide of degeneracy: What everyone ought to know about eugenics’, World’s Work 53 (November 1926), 4–32.

Wolfensberger, W. ‘The extermination of handicapped people in World War II Germany’, Mental Retardation 19 (1981), 1–7.

Young, K. ‘Intelligence tests of certain immigrant groups’, Scientific Monthly 15 (1922), 417–34.

Zeleny, L.D. ‘Feeble-mindedness and criminal conduct’, American Journal of Sociology 38 (1933), 564–76.

Zuckier, H. ‘The essential “other” and the Jew: From antisemitism to genocide’, Social Research 63 (1996), 1110–52.