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The routes to exileFrance and the Spanish Civil War refugees, 1939-2009$
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Scott Soo

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780719086915

Published to Manchester Scholarship Online: May 2014

DOI: 10.7228/manchester/9780719086915.001.0001

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Work, surveillance, refusal and revolt in Vichy and German-occupied France, 1940–44

Work, surveillance, refusal and revolt in Vichy and German-occupied France, 1940–44

Chapter:
(p.152) 5 Work, surveillance, refusal and revolt in Vichy and German-occupied France, 1940–44
Source:
The routes to exile
Author(s):

Scott Soo

Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:10.7228/manchester/9780719086915.003.0006

This chapter studies the refugees’ experiences in Vichy's Foreign Labour Groups and the German Organisation Todt. How similar were Vichy's Labour Groups to the Labour Companies of the Third Republic± How effective were the French and German authorities’ strategies for controlling the refugee workers± What were the refugees’ motivations for escaping from French and German workplaces± In the course of the discussion, this chapter shows how initial reluctance to employ the refugees by Vichy and German officials was replaced by a realisation of their labour potential and a corresponding amelioration in working conditions. This was followed by a competing demand for labour combined with the development of rival refugee labour strategies by Vichy and the Germans which inadvertently created new possibilities for Spanish republicans needing to change their place of work. As French and German authorities became increasingly reliant on Spanish republican labour a pronounced pattern of refusal and revolt unfolded with workplaces becoming central to Spanish republican resistance.

Keywords:   GTE, Vichy, Occupation, Refugees, Resistance, Liberation, Todt, Second World War, Atlantic wall

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