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European regionalism and the left$
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Gerard Strange and Owen Worth

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780719085734

Published to Manchester Scholarship Online: May 2013

DOI: 10.7228/manchester/9780719085734.001.0001

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Europeanisation of the Left: cooperation or competition?

Europeanisation of the Left: cooperation or competition?

(p.84) (p.85) 4 Europeanisation of the Left: cooperation or competition?
European regionalism and the left

Michael Holmes

Simon Lightfoot

Manchester University Press

The process of European Integration impacts upon all parties of the left. This chapter focuses on how social democratic, communist and green parties have responded to the challenge of Europeanistion, It shows that all parties engage extensively with the EU at a practical level, via elections, European parliamentary groups and European parties. There is also evidence of increasing policy adaption and the adoption of more pro-European programmes, through this is not quite as extensive. However, ideological disputes over the nature of the EU as it is currently constructed and party competition have hindered the development of a broad left vision for the EU's future.

Keywords:   Europeanisation, European parliament, party competition, party cooperation, the Left

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