Note: * = see Appendix B for details.
After a career in the East India Company's civil service, James Alexander (1730–1802), the future first Lord Caledon, returned to Ireland in 1772 when he purchased the Caledon estates. In 1790 he was created Baron Caledon, in 1797 Viscount Caledon, and in 1800 Earl of Caledon. In 1774 he married Anne Crawford (d. 1777). The first Earl was succeeded by his only son, Du Pre Alexander, Earl of Caledon (1777–1839). In 1811 the second Earl married Catherine Freeman (1786–1863).* He was succeeded by his only son, James Du Pre Alexander, Earl of Caledon (1812–55). In 1845 the third Earl married Jane Grimston (1825–88).
Landed estate: counties Tyrone and Armagh
Main Irish residence: Castle Caledon, County Tyrone
The Blackwood family was of Scottish origin, and settled in County Down in the early seventeenth century. In 1751 John Blackwood (d. 1799) married Dorcas Stevenson (1726–1807),* the eldest daughter and, the heiress of James Stevenson of County Down. In 1800 Dorcas was created Baroness Dufferin and Clandeboye; she was succeeded by her eldest son, James Stevenson Blackwood, Lord Dufferin (1755–1836). In 1801 Lord Dufferin married Anna Dorothea Foster (d. 1865),* the daughter of Margaretta, Viscountess Ferrard, and John Foster, Baron Oriel of Ferrard. In 1836 he was succeeded by his brother, Hans Blackwood, Lord Dufferin (1758–1839), who had married first Mehetable Temple (d. 1798) and second Elizabeth Finlay (d. 1843). He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son of his first marriage, Price Blackwood, Lord Dufferin (1794–1841). In 1825 the fourth Lord (p.185) Dufferin married Helen Selina Sheridan (1807–67).* Price Blackwood was succeeded by his only son, Frederick Blackwood, first Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, as a minor, in 1847.
Landed estate: County Down
Main Irish residence: Clandeboye, Bangor, County Down
Francis Boyle (1623–1680), the first Viscount Shannon, was a younger son of Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork, and was granted land by Charles II. The Boyles were created Earls of Shannon in 1756. In 1715 Henry Boyle (d. 1764), first Earl of Shannon, married firstly Catherine Coote, daughter of Catherine Sandys. He married secondly, in 1726, Henrietta Boyle, daughter of the third Earl of Cork. The fifth son of the first Earl was Robert Boyle-Walsingham, who married Charlotte Hanbury* in 1760, the daughter and co-heir of Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, and eventually inherited the barony of de Ros, which passed on her death to her daughter Charlotte, Lady Fitzgerald. In 1763 Richard Boyle, second Earl of Shannon (1727–1807), married Catherine Ponsonby (1746–1827), daughter of Sir John Ponsonby, speaker of the Irish House of Commons, and Elizabeth (Cavendish). He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Henry Boyle (1771–1842). The third Earl of Shannon married Sarah Hyde (d. 1820), fourth daughter of John Hyde of County Cork and Sarah (Burton) in 1798. Along with two sons, six daughters were born of the marriage: Charlotte (d. 1880s?), Sarah (d. 1884), Louisa Grace (d. 1856), Jane (d. 1876), Elizabeth (d. 1886) and Katherine Boyle (d. 1867). Henry, Lord Shannon, was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Richard Boyle (1809–68). In 1832 the fourth Earl of Shannon married Emily Henrietta Seymour (d. 1887), daughter of Lord George Seymour and Isabella (Hamilton).
Landed estate: County Cork
Main Irish residence: Castlemartyr, County Cork
The Brownes were a prominent catholic landowning family from the late sixteenth century, and were created Viscounts Kenmare in 1798 and Earls of Kenmare in 1801. Valentine Browne, Earl of Kenmare (1754–1812), married firstly Charlotte Dillon (1755–82)* in 1777 and secondly Mary Aylmer (d. 1806) in 1785. He was succeeded by his eldest son by his second marriage, also Valentine Browne (1788–1853). The second (p.186) Earl of Kenmare married Augusta Anne Wilmot (d. 1873) in 1816, and was created Baron Kenmare of Castlerosse in the UK peerage.
Landed estate: counties Kerry and Cork, Limerick
Main Irish residence: Killarney House, County Kerry
The Brownlow family's connection with Ireland dates from the sixteenth-century plantation of Ulster. William Brownlow of Lurgan (d. 1794) married firstly, in 1754 Judith Letitia Meredyth (d. 1763), and secondly, in 1765, Catherine Hall (d. 1843),* the daughter of Roger Hall of Mount Hall, County Down. He was succeeded by his eldest son, William Brownlow (1755–95), who in 1795 married Charity Forde,* daughter of Matthew Forde of Seaforde, County Down. William Brownlow died without issue and was succeeded by his brother, Charles Brownlow (1757–1822). Charles Brownlow married Caroline Ashe (d. 1838), of Bath, in 1785. He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Charles Brownlow (1795–1847), who was created first Baron Lurgan in 1839. Lord Lurgan married firstly Lady Mary Bligh (1796–1823),* daughter of the Earl and Countess of Darnley, and secondly Jane MacNeill (d. 1878),* daughter of Roderick MacNeill of Barra, Inverness.
Landed estate: counties Armagh, Down and Monaghan
Main Irish residence: Brownlow House, Lurgan, County Armagh
The Chichesters were created Earls of Donegall in 1647. Arthur Chichester (1739–99) was created Marquess of Donegall in 1791. He married firstly Anne Hamilton (1738–80), the daughter of the Duke of Hamilton; secondly Charlotte Moore (d. 1789), widow of Thomas Moore; and thirdly Barbara Godfrey (d. 1829),* daughter of the Reverend Luke Godfrey. The first Marquess was succeeded in 1799 by his eldest son, George Augustus Chichester (1769–1844). The second Marquess married Anna May (d. 1849) in 1795, although the marriage was afterwards declared void owing to her illegitimacy. The Donegall landed estate was one of the largest in Ireland, estimated at a quarter of a million acres. In the period of the second Marquess it was also one of the most heavily indebted.
Landed estate: counties Donegal, Antrim, Londonderry
Main Irish residence: Belfast Castle, Belfast, County Antrim
(p.187) Cole (Enniskillen)
The Cole family estate was based on seventeenth-century plantation grants. In 1760 the Coles were created Lords Enniskillen, in 1776 Viscounts Enniskillen and in 1789 Earls of Enniskillen. In 1763 William Willoughby Cole, the first Earl of Enniskillen (1736–1803), married Anne Lowry-Corry (1742–1802),* the sister of the Earl of Belmore and daughter of Galbraith Lowry and Sarah (Corry). The first Earl was succeeded by his eldest son, John Willoughby Cole, Earl of Enniskillen (1768–1840). In 1805 the second Earl married Charlotte Paget (1781–1817), sister of the Marquess of Anglesby and daughter of the Earl of Uxbridge. The second Earl of Enniskillen was succeeded by his eldest son, William Willoughby Cole, Earl of Enniskillen (1807–86).
Landed estate: County Fermanagh and Wiltshire, England
Main Irish residence: Florence Court, Enniskillen
The Conolly family was first established at Castletown in 1709 by William Conolly (1662–1729), speaker of the Irish House of Commons, 1715–29. The estate was inherited in 1729 by Speaker Conolly's nephew, William Conolly (d. 1754). William Conolly's son Thomas Conolly (1734–1803) inherited the estate on his father's death in 1754. In 1758 Thomas Conolly married Lady Louisa Lennox (1743–1821),* daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Richmond and sister of Emily Fitzgerald, Duchess of Leinster.* The Conollys are the only example of a non-peerage family in this study, but in 1758 Thomas Conolly was regarded as one of the wealthiest landowners in Ireland.
Landed estate: counties Donegal, Londonderry, Leitrim, Fermanagh, Roscommon, Westmeath, Meath, Kildare, King's County
Main Irish residence: Castletown, Celbridge, County Kildare
The Creighton family's connection with Ireland dates from the seventeenth century. In 1768 Abraham Creighton was created Baron Erne of Crom Castle (c.1700–1772). Lord Erne married firstly in 1729, Elizabeth Rogerson (d. 1760) and secondly, in 1762, Jane Acheson (d. 1800),* widow of Arthur Acheson. The first Lord Erne was succeed by his eldest surviving son, John Creighton (c.1738–1828), who was created Viscount Erne in 1781 and Earl Erne of Crom Castle in 1789. The first Earl Erne (p.188) married firstly Catherine Howard (d. 1775), daughter of the Bishop of Elphin, in 1761, and secondly, in 1776, Mary Caroline Hervey (d. 1842),* daughter of the Bishop of Derry. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Abraham Creighton (d. 1842), who died unmarried. He was succeeded by his nephew, John Creighton, Earl Erne of Crom Castle (1802–85). The third Earl married Selina Griselda Beresforde (1804–84) in 1837.
Landed estate: counties Fermanagh, Donegal, Mayo and Sligo
Main Irish residence: Crom Castle, County Fermanagh
The Dawsons were created Barons Cremorne of Castle Dawson in 1797. The family estates in County Monaghan date from the seventeenth century. Thomas Dawson, Lord Cremorne (1725–1813), married firstly Anne Fermor (1733–69) and secondly Philadelphia Hannah (d. 1826). His great-nephew, Richard Thomas Dawson, Lord Cremorne (1788–1827), inherited the family title and estates and married Anne Whaley (d. 1885) in 1815. His second but only surviving son, Richard Dawson, (1817–97), married Augusta Stanley (1823–87) in 1841. This Richard Dawson was created Lord Dartrey in 1847.
Landed estate: counties Armagh, Monaghan, Waterford, Louth as well as English estates in Devon
Main Irish residence: Dartrey House, County Monaghan
The Fitzgerald family's connection with Ireland dates from the eleventh century. Known as the Geraldines, the Fitzgeralds, Earls of Kildare, were among the first peers of Ireland, and one of the oldest surviving families of the Irish aristocracy. James Fitzgerald, twentieth Earl of Kildare (1722–73), was created Duke of Leinster in 1766. In 1746/47 he married Emilia (Emily) Mary Lennox (1731–1814),* daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Richmond and sister of Louisa Conolly.* James Duke of Leinster was succeeded by his eldest son, William Robert Fitzgerald, Duke of Leinster (1748–1804), in 1773. William, Duke of Leinster, married Emilia Olivia Usher St George (d. 1798) in 1775.
Landed estate: counties Kildare and Meath
Main Irish residences: Carton, Maynooth, County Kildare; Leinster House, Dublin
(p.189) Hamilton (Abercorn)
The Hamilton family's connection to Ireland dates from the grant of land made to James Hamilton, first Earl of Abercorn (d. 1618), in the early seventeenth century. The Hamiltons were created Lords Abercorn in 1603 and Earls of Abercorn in 1606, both in the Scottish peerage. John James Hamilton (1756–1818) was created Marquess of Abercorn in the Irish peerage in 1794. John James Hamilton, Marquess of Abercorn, married three times. His first wife, Catherine Copely (d. 1791), predeceased him, and he divorced his second wife, Cecil Hamilton, by private Act of Parliament on the grounds of adultery in 1799. His third wife, Lady Ann Hatton (1763–1827), was a widow. John James survived his only son and heir by his first marriage, James, Viscount Hamilton (1786–1814). In 1809 Viscount Hamilton married Harriet Douglas (Gordon) (d. 1833),* daughter of John Douglas and Frances Lascelles. The eldest son of this marriage, James Hamilton (1811–85), succeeded to the Abercorn estate and title on the death of the first Marquess in 1818.
Landed estates: counties Tyrone and Donegal, and Scotland
Main Irish residence: Barons Court, County Tyrone
The Hill family's connection with Ireland dates from the sixteenth century when Moseys Hill acquired a grant of land in County Antrim. In 1751 the Hills were created Viscounts Kilwarlin; in 1772 Viscounts Fairford and Earls of Hillsborough; and in 1789 Marquesses of Downshire. Wills Hill, the first Marquess of Downshire (1718–93), married firstly Margaretta Fitzgerald (1729–66), and secondly Mary Bilson-Legge (1726–1780). He was succeeded by his son Arthur Hill, Lord Fairford (1753–1801). In 1786 the second Marquess married Mary Sandys (d. 1836),* only daughter and heiress of Martin Sandys and Mary (Blundell). He was succeeded by his eldest son, Arthur Blundell Sandys Hill (1788–1845), while he was still a minor. The Downshire estates were managed by Mary, Marchioness of Downshire, during the minority. In 1811, the third Marquess married Maria Hickman (1790–1855),* first daughter of the fifth Earl of Plymouth and Sarah (Archer).
Landed estates: counties Down, Wicklow, King's County, Antrim and Kildare
Main Irish residence: Hillsborough Castle, County Down
(p.190) MacDonnell (Antrim)
The MacDonnells were created Earls of Antrim in 1620 when Randal MacSorley MacDonnell received a grant of land from James I. Randall William MacDonnell, sixth Earl of Antrim (1794–91), married Letitia Trevor (d. 1801)* in 1774. He died without male issue, and devised the Antrim estate to his three daughters, Anne Katherine,* Letitia* and Charlotte MacDonnell,* as well as arranging for the special creation of the Earldom of Antrim to pass to daughters.
Landed estates: counties Antrim and Londonderry
Main Irish residence: Glenarm Castle, County Antrim
The Meades were of Gaelic descent, and were established in County Cork from the fourteenth century. In 1765 John Meade (1744–1800) married Theodosia Hawkins-Magill (1743–1817),* and in 1766 he was created Viscount Clanwilliam, advancing to Earl of Clanwilliam in 1776. The Meades were created Barons Clanwilliam in the UK peerage in 1828. In 1799 the Clanwilliam estates were estimated at £14,000 per annum, but their fortune was dissipated in the following years, and in 1805 the entail of the Tipperary estates was broken and sold.
Landed estate: counties Tipperary and Down
Main Irish residence: Gill Hall, Dromore, County Down
The Skeffington family's connection with Ireland dates from the seventeenth century and Sir Hugh Clotworthy's involvement with the nine years’ war in Ulster. In 1660 his son and heir, Sir John Clotworthy (d. 1665), was created Viscount Massereene. Clotworthy Skeffington (d. 1757), fifth Viscount, was created Earl of Massereene in 1756. He married firstly Anne Daniel, daughter of the Reverend Richard Daniel, and secondly, in 1741, Anne Eyre (c.1716–1805),* daughter of Henry Eyre, of Derbyshire. He was succeeded by his eldest son from his second marriage, Clotworthy Skeffington (c.1742–1805). The second Earl of Massereene married Marie Anne Barcier (d. 1838) while imprisoned in Paris. After her death he married Elizabeth Lane (d. 1838). After the second Earl's death in 1805, the Massereene title and estates passed to his brother Henry Skeffngton (c.1744–1811), who died unmarried. He was succeeded by his brother, Chichester Skeffington (c.1746–1816). The (p.191) fourth Earl married Harriet Jocelyn (d. 1831),* daughter of the Earl of Roden, in 1780. The only daughter and heir of the marriage was Harriet Skeffington (d. 1831).* In 1810 she married Thomas Foster (d. 1843), the future Viscount Ferrard. On the death of the fourth Earl, Harriet inherited the Massereene title and estate.
Landed estates: counties Antrim, Louth, Meath and Monaghan
Main Irish residence: Antrim Castle; Oriel Temple, County Louth
The Stewarts settled in Ireland in the seventeenth century. They were created Marquesses of Londonderry in 1816. Robert Stewart, first Marquess of Londonderry (1739–1821), married firstly Sarah Francis Seymour Conway (1747–70) in 1766 and secondly Frances Pratt (d. 1833) in 1775. He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Robert Stewart (1769–1822), who married Amelia Anne Hobart (1772–1829),* the daughter of the Earl and Countess of Buckinghamshire, in 1794. The second Marquess committed suicide in 1822 and was succeeded by his half-brother, Charles Stewart (1778–1854). The third Marquess married firstly Catherine Bligh (1774–1812) in 1804. In 1819 he married secondly Frances Anne Emily Vane-Tempest (1800–65),* the only daughter, and heiress, of Henry Vane-Tempest and Anne Catherine, Countess of Antrim.
Landed estate: counties Down, Londonderry and Donegal, English estate in County Durham
Main Irish residence: Mount Stewart, Newtownards, County Down
The Wards of Castle Ward, County Down, were created Viscounts Bangor in 1781. In 1747 the first Lord Bangor, Bernard Ward (1719–81), married Ann Hawkins-Magill (1728–89),* widow of Robert Hawkins-Magill of Gill Hall, County Down, and mother of Theodosia Meade, Countess of Clanwilliam.* There were seven children of the marriage, three sons, Nicholas, Edward and Colonel Robert Ward, and four daughters: Anne Catherine,* Sophia,* Sarah and Emilia.* Lord and Lady Bangor separated in 1766, and Lady Bangor left Ireland to live in Bath, where she died in 1789. Bernard, Lord Bangor, died in 1789 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Nicholas. Nicholas, Lord Bangor, was decared insane in 1781 and died unmarried and without issue in 1827. He was succeeded by Edward Southwell Ward, the eldest son of Edward Ward and his wife Arabella.*
(p.192) Landed estate: County Down
Main Irish residence: Castle Ward, Strangford, County Down
The landed estate of the Westenra family, Barons Rossmore, came into the possession of the family by the marriage of Robert Cunninghame (d. 1801) of Mount Kennedy, County Wicklow, to Elizabeth Murray (d. 1824), second daughter of Colonel John Murray and Elizabeth Blayney, widow of the seventh Lord Blayney; Cunninghame was created Baron Rossmore of Monaghan in 1796. After his death in 1801 he was succeeded by Warner William Westenra (1765–1842), the nephew of his late wife. In 1791 the second Lord Rossmore married firstly Mary Anne (Mariane) Walsh (d. 1807), daughter of Charles and Sarah Walsh of Tipperary. In 1819 he married secondly Lady Augusta Charteris (d. 1840),* youngest daughter of Sarah and Francis Charteris-Wemyss, Lord Elcho. Warner, Lord Rossmore, was succeeded by his eldest son, Henry Robert Westenra (1792–1860). In 1820 the third Lord Rossmore married firstly Anne Douglas-Hamilton (d. 1844), the illegitimate daughter of the Duke of Hamilton. After her death, he married in 1846 his cousin Josephine Julia Helen Lloyd (d. 1912), daughter of Henry Lloyd of County Tipperary.
Landed estate: County Monaghan
Main residence: Rossmore Park, County Monaghan
The Wingfield family's connection to Ireland dated from the sixteenth century. In 1609 Richard Wingfield (d. 1634) was granted land for service as Marshal of Ireland, and in 1617 he was created Viscount Powerscourt. Richard Wingfield (1730–88), the fifth Viscount Powerscourt, married Amelia Stratford (d. 1831),* daughter of John Stratford, Earl of Aldborough, and Martha O’Neale, in 1760. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Richard Wingfield (1762–1809). In 1789 the sixth Viscount Powerscourt married firstly Catherine Meade (1770–93), daughter of John Meade, Earl of Clanwilliam, and Theodosia, Countess of Clanwilliam.* After her death, he married in 1796 Isabella Brownlow (d. 1848), daughter of William Brownlow and his second wife Catherine (Hall). The sixth Viscount was succeeded by his eldest son by his first marriage, Richard Wingfield (1790–1823). In 1813 the seventh Viscount Powerscourt married firstly Francis Theodosia Jocelyn (1795–1820), (p.193) daughter of Robert Jocelyn, Earl of Roden, and Frances Theodosia (Bligh), Countess of Roden. In 1822 he married secondly Theodosia Howard (d. 1836), daughter of Hugh Howard and Alice, Countess of Wicklow.
Landed estate: counties Wicklow, Wexford and Dublin
Main Irish residence: Powerscourt, Enniskerry, County Wicklow
(1) The biographical information in this appendix was compiled from Gibb (ed.), The complete peerage and from family papers. All peerage details refer to the Irish peerage unless stated otherwise.