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The Extreme Right in Western EuropeSuccess or Failure?$

Elisabeth Carter

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780719070488

Published to Manchester Scholarship Online: July 2012

DOI: 10.7228/manchester/9780719070488.001.0001

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(p.216) Appendix A The ideological positions of West European political parties

(p.216) Appendix A The ideological positions of West European political parties

Source:
The Extreme Right in Western Europe
Publisher:
Manchester University Press

The tables below report the ideological positions of political parties throughout Western Europe, and are based on data from the following eight expert judgement studies, as listed in Chapter 4:

Comprehensive studies:

  • Castles and Mair (1984) – questionnaires sent out 1982;

  • Laver and Hunt (1992) – questionnaires sent out 1989;

  • Huber and Inglehart (1995) – questionnaires sent out 1993;

  • Lubbers (2000) – questionnaires sent out 2000.

Single-country case studies:

  • Laver (1995) on the Netherlands – questionnaires sent out 1994;

  • Laver (1998) on Britain – questionnaires sent out 1997;

  • Laver and Mair (1999) on the Netherlands – questionnaires sent out 1998;

  • Ray and Narud (2000) on Norway – questionnaires sent out 1998.

The scores of these parties represent their position on the left–right spectrum, with 0 indicating an extreme left position and 1 indicating an extreme right one (for details on how these scores were calculated see the section on data and methodology in Chapter 4). The scores in bold are those of the right-wing extremist parties, and the underlined scores are those of the closest parties of the mainstream right.

(p.217)

Austria

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Lubbers

FPÖ

0.68

0.667

0.848

0.850

G

0.243

0.207

0.250

KPÖ

0.05

0.265

LF

0.592

0.436

ÖVP

0.58

0.667

0.583

0.625

SPÖ

0.30

0.412

0.417

0.431

Notes: FPÖ: Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (Freedom Party); G: Die Grünen (Greens); KPÖ: Kommunistische Partei Österreichs (Communist Party); LF: Liberales Forum (Liberal Forum); ÖVP: Österreichische Volkspartei (People’s Party); SPÖ: Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs (Socialist Party).

Belgium Flanders

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Lubbers

A

0.45

0.363

0.267

0.265

CVP

0.58

0.753

0.556

0.578

PCB/KPB

0.14

PVV/VLD

0.78

0.579

0.676

RAD/UDRT

0.92

SP

0.29

0.242

0.356

0.358

VB

0.98

0.842

0.930

VU

0.68

0.711

0.611

0.509

Notes: Agalev: Anders gaan leven (Live Differently – Flemish Greens); CVP: Christelijke Volkspartij (Christian People’s Party); PCB/KPB: Kommunistische Partij van Belgie/Parti Communiste de Belgique (Communist Party); PVV: Partij voor Vrijheid en Vooruitgang (Party of Liberty and Progress); VLD: Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten (Flemish Liberals and Democrats) – successor party to PVV; RAD/UDRT: Respect voor Arbeit en Democratie/Union Démocratique pour le Respect du Travail (Democratic Union for the Respect of Labour); SP: Socialistische Partij (Flemish Socialist Party); VB: Vlaams Blok (Flemish Bloc); VU: Volksunie (Flemish People’s Union).

(p.218)

Wallonia

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Lubbers

E

0.45

0.363

0.278

0.208

FDF

0.56

0.485

0.667

FN(b)

0.950

PCB/KPB

0.14

PRL

0.76

0.625

0.699

0.661

PS

0.25

0.237

0.333

0.326

PSC

0.63

0.700

0.523

0.566

RAD/UDRT

0.92

RW

0.26

Notes: E: Ecolo (Francophone Greens); FDF: Front Démocratique des Francophones (Francophone Democratic Front); FN(b): Front National Belge (National Front); PCB/KPB: Kommunistische Partij van Belgie/Parti Communiste de Belgique (Communist Party); PRL: Parti Réformateur Libéral (Liberal Reform Party); PS: Parti Socialiste (Francophone Socialist Party); PSC: Parti Social Chrétien (Christian Social Party); RAD/UDRT: Respect voor Arbeit en Democratie/Union Démocratique pour le Respect du Travail (Democratic Union for the Respect of Labour); RW: Rassemblement Wallon (Walloon Rally).

Britain

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Laver

Lubbers

BNP

0.948

C

0.78

0.803

0.746

0.692

0.707

GP

0.275

L

0.23

0.260

0.381

0.436

0.443

Lib

0.50

0.344

0.468

0.277

0.398

PC

0.34

0.321

0.333

0.305

SDP

0.46

SNP

0.44

0.356

0.334

0.332

Notes: BNP: British National Party; C: Conservatives; GP: Green Party of England and Wales; L: Labour; Lib: Liberal Party/Liberal Democrats; PC: Plaid Cymru (Party of Wales); SDP: Social Democratic Party (in alliance with the Liberal Party 1983–1987 as the Alliance, merged with the Liberal Party in 1988 to form Social and Liberal Democrats, later renamed Liberal Democrats); SNP: Scottish National Party.

(p.219)

Denmark

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Lubbers

CD

0.57

0.553

0.556

0.555

DF

0.865

DKP

0.10

0.234

E

0.111

0.103

FK

0.311

FRPd

0.87

0.826

0.903

0.873

G

0.316

KF

0.73

0.673

0.729

0.720

KRF

0.62

0.763

0.580

0.590

RF

0.602

RV

0.48

0.424

0.519

0.483

SD

0.38

0.371

0.358

0.397

SF

0.19

0.187

0.210

0.245

V

0.67

0.729

0.790

0.770

VS

0.08

0.073

Notes: CD: Centrumdemokraterne (Centre Democrats); DF: Dansk Folkeparti (Danish People’s Party); DKP: Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti (Communist Party); E: Enhedslisten – de rød-grønne (Unity List – The Red Greens); FK: Faelles Kurs (Common Course); FRPd: Fremskridtspartiet (Progress Party); G: De Grønne (The Greens); KF: Konservative Folkeparti (Conservative People’s Party); KRF: Kristeligt Folkeparti (Christian People’s Party); RF: Retsforbundet (Justice League); RV: Radikale Venstre (Social Liberal Party); SD: Socialdemokratiet (Social Democrats); SF: Socialistisk Folkeparti (Socialist People’s Party); V: Venstre (Liberals); VS: Venstresocialisterne (Left Socialist Party).

(p.220)

France

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Lubbers

CDS

0.528

CNIP

0.86

E

0.35

FN

0.98

0.931

1.000

0.950

GE

0.378

LCR

0.000

LO

0.000

MPF

0.853

MRG

0.38

0.337

0.417

PCF

0.14

0.203

0.139

0.150

PFN

0.98

PR

0.689

PS

0.26

0.226

0.348

0.336

RPR

0.82

0.697

0.764

0.750

UDF

0.66

0.608

0.630

0.643

V

0.254

0.382

0.264

Notes: CDS: Centre des Démocrates Sociaux (Social Democratic Centre); CNIP: Centre National des Indépendants et Paysans (Independents and Farmers); E: Ecologists – various disparate tendencies; FN: Front National (National Front); GE: Génération Écologie (Ecologists); LCR: Ligue Communiste Révolutionnaire (Revolutionary Communist League); LO: Lutte Ouvrière (Workers’ Struggle); MPF: Mouvement pour la France (Movement for France); MRG: Mouvement des Radicaux de Gauche (Left Radicals); PCF: Parti Communiste Français (French Communist Party); PFN: Parti des Forces Nouvelles (Party of the New Forces); PR: Parti Républicain (Republican Party); PS: Parti Socialiste (Socialist Party); RPR: Rassemblement pour la République (Rally for the Republic); UDF: Union pour la Démocratie Française (Union for French Democracy); V: Les Verts (The Greens).

(p.221)

Germany

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Lubbers

CDU*

0.67

0.683

0.602

0.636

CSU

0.79

0.770

0.700

0.713

DKP

0.14

DVU

0.939

FDP

0.51

0.540

0.516

0.600

G

0.28

0.161

0.212

0.328

PDS

0.056

0.163

Republikaner

0.922

0.870

SPD

0.33

0.295

0.314

0.397

Notes: *The CDU, rather than the CSU, is taken as the closest mainstream party since the CSU is a regional party, only active in Bavaria. CDU: Christlich Demokratische Union (Christian Democratic Union); CSU: Christlich Soziale Union (Christian Social Union); DKP: Deutsche Kommunistische Partei (German Communist Party); DVU: Deutsche Volksunion (German People’s Union); FDP: Freie Demokratische Partei (Free Democrats); G: Die Grünen (The Greens); PDS: Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus (Party of Democratic Socialism); Republikaner: Die Republikaner (The Republicans); SPD: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Social Democrats).

Greece

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Lubbers

DKK

0.420

EM

0.978

KKE

0.283

0.163

KKKes

0.176

ND

0.722

0.738

PA

0.788

PASOK

0.324

0.508

SAP

0.373

Notes: DKK: Dimokratiki Kinoniku Kinima (Democratic Social Movement); EM: Eliniko Metopon (Greek Front); KKE: Kommounistiko Komma Ellados (Communist Party of Greece); KKKes: Kommounistiko Komma Ellados Esoterikou (Communist Party of Greece – Interior); ND: Nea Dimokratia (New Democracy); PA: Politiki Anixi (Political Spring); PASOK: Panellino Socialistiko Kinima (Pan-Hellenic Social Movement); SAP: Sinaspismos tis Aristeras ke ti Proodu (Coalition of the Left and Progress).

(p.222)

Italy

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Lubbers

AN

0.817

CCD

0.585

DC

0.54

0.684

0.592

DP

0.05

0.064

FI

0.665

LN

0.722

0.755

Ms-Ft

0.966

MSI

0.91

0.844

0.926

PCI

0.16

0.164

PDS

0.167

0.300

PdUP

0.06

PLI

0.59

0.577

0.700

PPI

0.450

PR

0.23

0.203

PRI

0.48

0.500

0.511

PSDI

0.54

0.440

0.472

PSI

0.31

0.352

0.444

RC

0.000

0.071

V

0.210

0.178

0.256

Notes: AN: Alleanza Nazionale (National Alliance) succeeded MSI in 1995; CCD: Centro Cristiano Democratico (Christian Democratic Centre); DC: Democrazia Cristiana (Christian Democrats) reformed into PPI in 1994; DP: Democrazia Proletaria (Proletarian Democracy) merged with PCI before 1992 election; FI: Forza Italia (Forward Italy); LN: Lega Nord (Northern League); Ms-Ft: Movimento Sociale Italiano–Fiamma Tricolore (Italian Social Movement – Tricolour Flame) broke away from MSI when MSI reformed into AN; MSI: Movimento Sociale Italiano (Italian Social Movement) reformed into AN in 1995; PCI: Partito Comunista Italiano (Communist Party), became PDS in 1991; PDS: Partito Democratico della Sinistra (Democratic Party of the Left) succeeded PCI in 1991; PdUP: Partito di Unità Proletaria per il Comunismo (Party of Proletarian Unity for Communism) merged with PCI in 1984; PLI: Partito Liberale Italiano (Liberal Party); PPI: Partito Popolare Italiano (Popular Party) successor to DC; PR: Partito Radicale (Radical Party); PRI: Partito Repubblicano Italiano (Republican Party); PSDI: Partito Socialista Democracio Italiano (Social Democrats); PSI: Partito Socialista Italiano (Socialist Party); RC: Rifondazione Comunista (Communist Refoundation) breakaway of PCI in 1991 when PCI became PDS; V: Federazione dei Verdi (Greens).

(p.223)

Netherlands

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Laver

Laver and Mair

Lubbers

AOV

0.536

CD

0.944

0.760

0.897

CDA

0.57

0.694

0.589

0.655

0.547

0.542

CPN

0.08

0.067

CU

0.703

D/66

0.44

0.309

0.422

0.314

0.458

0.446

GL

0.087

0.142

0.146

0.236

GPV

0.90

0.842

0.873

0.795

0.770

PPR

0.16

0.081

PSP

0.06

0.043

PvdA

0.26

0.205

0.356

0.283

0.378

0.369

RPF

0.92

0.881

0.889

0.809

0.762

SGP

0.92

0.879

0.889

0.829

0.886

0.788

SP

0.207

0.108

0.143

Unie 55 +

0.523

VVD

0.74

0.566

0.689

0.551

0.727

0.671

Notes: AOV: Algemeen Ouderverbond (United Old Persons’ League); CD: Centrumdemocraten (Centre Democrats); CDA: Christen Democratisch Appèl (Christian Democratic Appeal); CPN: Communistische Partij Nederland (Communist Party) became part of GL in 1990; CU: ChristenUnie (Christian Union) created January 2000 from merger of GPV and RPF; D’66: Democraten’66 (Democrats 66); GL: Groen Links (Green Left) created in 1990 from CPN, PSP, PPR and Evangelical People’s Party; GPV: Gereformeerd Politiek Verbond (Reformed Political Union); PPR: Politieke Partij Radicalen (Radical Political Party); PSP: Pacifistisch-Socialistische Partij (Pacifist Socialist Party) became part of GL in 1990; PvdA: Partij van de Arbeid (Labour Party); RPF: Reformatorische Politieke Federatie (Reformed Political Federation); SGP: Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij (Political Reformed Party); SP: Socialistische Partij (Socialist Party); Unie 55 + : Ouderenpartij Unie 55 + (Pensioners Union 55 +); VVD: Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy).

(p.224)

Norway

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Ray and Narud

Lubbers

DNA

0.30

0.282

0.348

0.453

0.400

FP

0.537

FRPn

0.94

0.726

0.909

0.881

0.814

H

0.77

0.586

0.778

0.798

0.741

KrF

0.61

0.685

0.617

0.544

0.553

MG

0.277

RV

0.047

0.200

SP

0.58

0.562

0.481

0.393

0.424

SV

0.12

0.149

0.172

0.190

0.217

V

0.40

0.411

0.540

0.596

0.660

Notes: DNA: Det Norske Arbeiderparti (Labour Party); FP: Folkepartiet (Liberal People’s Party); FRPn: Fremskrittspartiet (Progress Party); H: Høyre (Conservatives); KrF: Kristelig Folkeparti (Christian People’s Party); MG: Miljøpartiet - De Grønne (Greens); RV: Rød Valgallianse (Red Electoral Alliance); SP: Senterpartiet (Centre Party); SV: Sosialistik Venstreparti (Socialist Left Party); V: Venstre (Liberals).

Portugal

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Lubbers

CDS/PP

0.873

0.820

0.820

DI

0.184

MDP

0.211

P.XXI

0.200

PCP

0.108

0.292

0.216

PDC

0.930

PEV

0.105

0.240

PRD

0.448

PSD

0.642

0.598

0.598

PSN

0.806

PSP

0.388

0.431

0.425

PSR

0.123

0.094

UDP

0.105

0.104

Notes: CDS/PP: Partido do Centro Democrático Social (Centre Social Democrats) renamed Partido Popular (Popular Party) in 1995; DI: Intervençao Democrática (Democratic Intervention); MDP: Movimento Democrático Português (Democratic Movement); P.XXI: Politica XXI (Politics XXI); PCP: Partido Comunista Português (Communist Party); PDC: Partido da Democracia Cristã (Party of Christian Democracy); PEV: Partido EcologistaOs Verdes’ (Greens); PRD: Partido Renovador Democrático (Democratic Renewal Party); PSD: Partido Social Democráta (Social Democratic Party); PSN: Partido de Solidariedade Nacional (National Solidarity Party); PSP: Partido Socialista Português (Socialist Party); PSR: Partido Socialista Revolucionário (Revolutionary Socialist Party); UDP: União Democratico Popular (Democratic People’s Union).

(p.225)

Spain

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Lubbers

AP/PP

0.84

0.784

0.722

0.685

CDS

0.384

0.489

CiU

0.66

0.511

0.574

0.567

DN

0.920

EA

0.408

EE

0.24

ERC

0.41

FEJons

0.953

HB

0.05

0.217

0.000

MUC

0.070

PAR

0.82

PCE/IU

0.27

PNV

0.67

0.621

0.571

0.606

PRD

0.447

PSA

0.45

PSOE

0.36

0.279

0.333

0.396

UCD

0.71

UCP

0.07

0.095

0.153

0.254

UN/FN

0.98

Notes: AP/PP: Alianza Popular/Partido Popular (Popular Alliance/Popular Party) AP merged with the Liberal Party in 1989 to become PP; CDS: Centro Democrático y Social (Democratic and Social Centre) successor to UCD; CiU: Convergència y Unió (Convergence and Unity); DN: Democracia Nacional (National Democracy); EA: Eusko Alkartasuna (Basque Solidarity); EE: Euzkadiko Ezkerra (Basque Left); ERC: Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (Catalan Republican Left); FEJons: Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (Spanish Phalanx of Committees for National Syndicalist Attack). HB: Herri Batasuna (United People); MUC: Mesa per la Unididad de los Comunistas (Communist Unity); PAR: Partido Aragonés Regionalista (Aragonese Regionalist Party); PCE/IU: Partido Comunista de España/Izquierda Unida (Communist Party/United Left); PNV: Euzko Alberdi Jeltzalea/Partido Nacionalista Vasco (Basque Nationalist Party); PRD: Partido Reformista Democrático (Democratic Reform Party); PSA: Partido Socialista Andaluz/Partido Andaluz (Andalusian Socialist Party); PSOE: Partido Socialista Obrero Español (Socialist Party); UCD: Unión del Centro Democrático (Union of Democratic Centre) became CDS in 1982; UCP: Coalición Unión del Pueblo Canario (Canary People’s Union); UN/FN: Unión Nacional/Fuerza Nueva (National Union/New Force).

(p.226)

Sweden

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Lubbers

CP

0.59

0.540

0.547

0.602

FP

0.55

0.484

0.547

0.567

G

0.302

0.361

0.346

KDS

0.714

0.667

0.729

M

0.77

0.716

0.814

0.796

ND

0.899

0.896

SdAP

0.29

0.323

0.342

0.400

SDk

0.950

VP

0.12

0.147

0.180

0.221

Notes: CP: Centerpartiet (Centre Party); FP: Folkpartiet – Liberalerna (People’s Party – the Liberals); G: Miljöpartiet de Gröna (Greens); KDS: Kristdemokraterna (Christian Democrats); M: Moderata Samlingspartiet (Moderate Unity Party); ND: Ny Demokrati (New Democrats); SdAP: Sveriges Socialdemokratiska Arbetarepartiet (Social Democrats); SDk: Sverigedemokraterna (Sweden Democrats); VPK: Vänsterpartiet (Left Party).

Switzerland

Castles and Mair

Laver and Hunt

Huber and Inglehart

Lubbers

APS/FPS

0.806

0.891

CVP

0.378

0.590

EDU

0.884

EVP

0.528

FDP

0.556

0.679

GPS

0.274

LdT

0.898

LPS

0.689

0.763

PdA

0.152

SD

0.906

SPS

0.178

0.293

SVP

0.583

0.839

Notes: APS/FPS: Autopartei der Schweiz/Parti Automobiliste Suisse (Car Party of Switzerland), renamed Freiheitspartei der Schweiz (Freedom Party of Switzerland) in 1995; CVP: Christlich Demokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz/Parti Démocrate-Chrétien Suisse (Christian Democratic People’s Party); EDU: Eidgenössich-Demokratische Union/Union Démocratique Fédérale (Federal Democratic Union); EVP: Evangelische Volkspartei der Schweiz/Parti Populaire Évangelique (Protestant People’s Party); FDP: Freisinnig Demokratische Partei der Schweiz/Parti Radical Suisse (Radical Democrats); GPS: Grüne Partei der Schweiz/Parti Écologiste Suisse (Green Party); LdT: Lega dei Ticinesi (Ticino League); LPS: Liberale Partei der Schweiz/Parti Libéral Suisse (Liberal Party); PdA: Partei der Arbeit der Schweiz/Parti Suisse du Travail (Labour Party); SD: Schweizer Demokraten/Démocrates Suisses (Swiss Democrats); SPS: Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz/Parti Socialiste Suisse (Social Democrats); SVP: Schweizerische Volkspartei/Union Démocratique du Centre (Swiss People’s Party).